ABSTRACTS

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ABSTRACTS
ABSTRACTS
Welcome
It is my pleasure to announce the release of this abstract book, which includes all the studies presented at
the 5th World Congress of Science and Medicine in Cricket (WCSMC), 23-26 March, 2015, hosted by the
University of Sydney at the conference facilities of Luna Park. The WCSMC is the premier international
conference for cricket research, bringing together the most eminent researchers in the field, as well as world
renowned coaches, players and administrators. Every effort was made to satisfy the overarching aim of this
conference - to find ways of playing cricket that are safer, better and fairer by seeking research contributions
from all the relevant scientific disciplines, including biomechanics, motor control, exercise physiology,
strength and conditioning, physiotherapy, nutrition, sports psychology, and coaching science. It is in keeping
with the philosophy of the WCSMC that science positively influences the developmental pathway of cricket.
This WCSMC 2015 is built on the notable successes of the previous congresses held in Shropshire, United
Kingdom, 1999; Cape Town, South Africa, 2003; Bridgetown, Barbados, 2007; and Chandigarh, India, 2011. In
total there were 105 papers coming from 10 different countries (Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, India, Iran,
Japan, New Zealand, South Africa, Sri Lanka, United Arab Emirates, and United Kingdom). In addition, there
were two workshops associated with this conference: bowling biomechanics analysis and the smart ball, and
Orthopedics and Physiotherapy Issues in Cricket. The list of invited speakers for both the conference and
workshops is impressive: Professor Mandeep Dhillon, Dr. Peter Selveratnam, Dr. John Orchard, Dr. Peter
Bruckner, Professor Bruce Elliott, Professor Arjuna de Silva, Dr. Marinis Piripis, Elli Acic, Patrick Farhart, David
De La Harpe, Jenny McConnell, Andrew Nelson, and A/Professor Martin Richardson. I thank them for their
significant contribution to the program content. I also thank Professor Mandeep Dhillon, Dr. Peter
Selveratnam, Dr, Marinis Pipiris, and Dr. Arjan Nalliah, and Professor Franz Fuss for acting as chairs for the
WCSMC 2015 workshops.
Finally, I would like to very much thank all the members of both the local and international organising
conference committees, and the administrative staff at ICMS Australasia for putting this conference
together. And, of course, to all the conference registrants – without your attendance and participation, this
conference could not proceed. Thank you very much.
Unfortunately, it is necessary to end on a particularly sad note: this year’s conference is marked by the
passing away of Professor Richard Stretch, who was the President of the World Congress of Science and
Medicine in Cricket Committee. It was his passionate vision to promote the science of cricket for the
betterment of the game. It is my sincere wish that future WCSMCs will strive to pursue this path in his
memory.
Dr. René E.D. Ferdinands
Chairman of WCSMC 2015
2
Local Organising Committee
Dr René E.D. Ferdinands (Chairman)
Ms Lyndall Burke (Secretariat)
Aaron Beach
Dr Jonathan Freeston
Prof Ross Sanders
Dr Peter Sinclair
Dr. Kieron Rooney
Prof Richard Smith
Dr Najeebullah Soomro
International Organising Committee
Prof Mandeep Dhillon
Prof Richard Stretch
Dr Arjan Nalliah
Dr John Orchard
3
Contents
Keynote Presentations
10 – 17
Brukner, P |Low carb and high performance
10
De Silva, A | Anti doping in Asia is strong legislation the answer?
11
Eliott, B | The back breaks before the wicket: the history of lumbar
mechanics and back injury - the UWA journey
12
Ferdinands, E | Applying biomechanics in cricket coaching to produce
elite batters and bowlers
16
Orchard, J | Relationship between workload and pace bowler injury in
cricket
17
Oral Presentations
18 – 109
Abotel, K | Injury risk monitor for cricket: Proof of concept from SAP
18
Arora, M | The shoulder in cricket: What's causing all the painful shoulders?
19
Barclay, D | Understanding the interpersonal neurobiology of coaching
athletes and how to foster high performing athletes in pressure
environments in cricket
20
Beach, A | The relationship between arm kinematics and ball angular velocity
in cricket spin bowling
21
Bray, J | The use of heart rate, high-speed running and accelerometry in
limited overs cricket to measure training load in fast bowling
22
Chalker, W | A review of hamstring strain injuries in cricket and potential
methods to reduce the high occurrence of strains
23
Chalker, W | Eccentric hamstring strength asymmetries and the effect of
augmented feedback in elite cricket players: A pilot study
25
Christie, C | Impact of batting skill on pacing during repeated sprints
between the wickets
27
Cronin, J | A survey of best practice strength and conditioning for cricket
fast bowlers
28
Cronin, J | Key movements and skills of wicket-keepers in one day
international cricket
29
Cutti, A | Development of a standardised system for the assessment of
suspected illegal bowling action in cricket
30
4
Dascombe, B | The use of small-sided cricket games and the influence of
variations to the playing environment and rules
32
De Moore, G | Cricket and suicide in the nineteenth century
33
Dhillon, M | The chucking controversy in cricket
34
Doljin, B | Development of a smart cricket ball for advanced performance
analysis of bowling
35
Felton, P | Investigating the relationships between technique parameters
and ball release speed in female fast bowling
36
Ferdinands, E | Case study: Biomechanical remediation of an illegal spin
bowling action
37
Ferdinands, E | A new classification of spin bowling deliveries based on
kinematic and dynamic parameters
38
Finch, C | The impact of injury and injury risk perceptions on participation
in junior community cricket in Australia
39
Finch, C | Participation habits in junior level community cricket players
40
Finch, C | The incidence of injury in Australian community level cricket
players: A national overview of insurance claims from 2004-2013
41
Finch, C | Sport-specific factors predicting player retention in junior cricket results from a logistic regression model
42
Freeston, J | Strength correlates of throwing velocity in sub-elite male cricket
players
43
Fuss, F | Kinematics and dynamics of spin bowling measured with a smart
cricket ball
44
Fuss, F | Detection of illegal bowling actions with a smart cricket ball
45
Gadkar, H | Effect of sleeper's stretch on internal rotation and horizontal
adduction range of motion in elite male cricket bowers
46
Gamage, J | Effects of exercise induced hypo-hydration on sport specific skill
performance among cricketers playing in hot and humid conditions
47
Gamage, J | The relationship of finger-hand-wrist dimensions and
anthropometry on wrist joint active range of motion among spin and fast
bowlers
48
Goble, D | The effects of a 30 over simulated batting protocol on cognitive
performance: A holistic approach
49
Goodchild, Z | Reliability of performance analysis systems in cricket - a
comparative analysis between novice and experienced manual coders
and virtual-eye
50
5
Gray, J | Electromyography of the abdominal muscles during the delivery
stride of fast bowling demonstrates differences between adolescent
cricketers with and without back pain
51
Humphries, D | Abdominal wall injuries in cricket; a review of the cricket
Australia injury database 1995-2014
52
Johnstone, J | Using mobile monitoring technology to develop an in-match
physiological profile of professional fast-medium bowlers
53
King, M | Calculating elbow extension during cricket bowling using a marker
based system
54
Kuruppu, G | Tracking the spin of the cricket ball with SIFT feature matching
and Kalman filtering
55
Kuruppu, G | Investigating the performance effects of a faster delivery of
spin bowling
57
Kuruppu, G | Novel method of using two-dimensional video analysis to track
the bowling arm in real-time
58
Langley, B | Five-year epidemiology of muscle injuries in professional cricket
59
Langley, B | Four-year injury surveillance of an international women's cricket
squad
60
Langley, B | Five-year injury types and rates of first class county cricket
61
Mansingh, A | Longitudinal injury surveillance for an international team cricket
62
McCaig, S | Ankle dorsiflexion range and posterior ankle impingement syndrome
63
McCaig, S | Humeral torsion in adolescent cricketers
64
McCaig, S | The impact of throwing arm pain on cricket training and match
availability and performance in elite adolescent cricketers
65
McCaig, S | Musculoskeletal and fitness profiles of elite adolescent cricketers
66
Mhaskar, V | Analysis of muscular activity in upper limbs & foot pressure in fast
bowlers to improve performance and prevent injury
68
Middleton, K | Can simple technique remediation reduce elbow extension levels
in suspect spin bowlers: A case study
69
Middleton, K | Is elbow joint extension the only variable to consider when
assessing suspect bowling actions?
70
Mole, G | Case studies: Developing mental conditioning practices for elite
cricketers
71
Mount, S | Three-year cricket injury surveillance: fast bowlers are the biggest
injury burden
72
6
Mount, S | Bowlers are at greater risk of sustaining ‘related', subsequent
injuries than batters or wicket-keepers
74
Mount, S | Daily exposure during one-year of international cricket
75
Mount, S | Fast bowler match and training workload patterns during
international cricket
76
Muller, S | Individual differences in expert visuomotor skill in cricket batting
77
Naiwala Pathirannehelage, C | Finding similar/outlier players in cricket
78
Nalliah, A | Physiotherapy screening and pre habilitation for the biomechanical
requirements of fast bowling
79
Nalliah, A | Association between transferrin saturation and fast bowling speed
and fitness
80
Noorbhai, H | A qualitative review of backlift batting techniques of successful
cricket batsmen in the last century
81
Noorbhai, H | An analysis of kinetic chain exercises in relation to quadriceps
angles among injured adolescent cricketers in Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa
82
Olivier, B | Cricket pace bowling, ball release speed and injury prevention:
a balancing act?
83
Orchard, J | Surgeries performed in professional Australian male cricketers
84
Orchard, J | Injury surveillance in Pakistan cricket and the impact of 2009
terrorist attack
85
Peploe, C | The effects of different ball delivery methods on the kinematic
response of elite cricket batsmen in repeated pull shots
86
Petersen, C | Captain and coaches playbook app: a practical display of fielding
data
87
Pote, L | Physiological and perceptual responses of batsmen during a simulated
one day international century: impact on performance
88
Puranik, R | The prevention of sudden cardiac death in elite cricketers
89
Ranson, C | Mixed actions and shoulder counter-rotation: Unlikely mechanical
risk factors for lower back stress fracture in fast bowlers
90
Ranson, C | Trials and tribulations of designing and implementing improved
cricket helmet safety standards
91
Ratnayake, A | Sodium bisphosphanate therapy on pars interarticularis stress
fractures in cricketers
92
Salvi, B | Effect of gender, socio - economic status on achievement motivation
of inter university cricket players of Mumbai region
93
7
Sanders, L | Fast bowling IMU data classification: A case study
94
Sarpeshkar, V | The influence of swing on the timing and coordination of a
front-foot defensive shot among cricket batters across skill and age
95
Schaefer, A | Bowling technique variability throughout a prolonged bowling
spell in junior fast bowlers
96
Selvaratnam, P | Cricketers - are they a pain in the back? Can dry needling help
them?
97
Sivaraman, A | Cricket Biomechanics in the Indian scenario
98
Soomro, N | Resistance training practices for fast bowlers amongst cricket
coaches in Australia
99
Soomro, N | Cricket injury surveillance by mobile application technology on
smartphones
100
Stern, S | Extending the duckworth-lewis method to deal with modern
scoring rates
101
Sutton, J | Emotion, psychological skills, and resilience in Australian
professional cricketers
102
Thebuwanarachchi, S | Cardiovascular risks for participation in cricket among
the adolescent players who are attending selected sports medicine clinics in
Sri Lanka-Pilot study
103
Thiagarajan, A | Comparison of cricket biomechanics factors in fast bowling
between young league fast bowlers and amateur fast bowlers
104
Thiagarajan, A | Podiatric assessment protocol for cricket players
105
Wells, D | The influence of ball release estimation method on cricket bowler
legality
106
Wijayasiri, U | Does training improve pulmonary functions of Sri Lankan
cricketers?
107
Wijesinghe, H | How to recognise a rheumatic condition masquerading as a
sports injury?
109
Poster Presentations
110 – 129
PO01 Callaghan, S | The kinematics of acceleration during a quick
single following a static or rolling start in premier league batsmen
110
PO02 Sayed, A | Biomechanical analysis of cricket fast bowling in
university level bowlers in India
111
8
PO03 Parikh, T | Comparative study of biomechanical analysis using
2d video analysis and 3d motion analysis in cricket fast bowling action
113
PO04 Dascombe, B | The validity of using session RPE to monitor the
training load of medium-fast bowlers
114
PO05 Date, A | Effect of body composition on vo2max in under 16 and
under 19 male cricket players
115
PO06 Hecimovich, M | Lumbar lordosis and lower back pain in junior cricket
bowlers
116
PO07 Hecimovich, M | Intra-rater reliability and concurrent validity of a tape
measure and digital inclinometer measurement method for lateral lumbar
range of motion in junior level cricket players
117
PO08 McCaig, S | The reliability of self reported measures of exposure in elite
adolescent cricketers
118
PO09 McCaig, S | The biomechanics of the combined elevation test
119
PO10 Prakash, M | Pictorial MR imaging findings in cricket players presented
with knee injuries
120
PO11 Rahimi, A | Epidemiology and the cause of varicocele and low back pain
in cricket athletes
121
PO12 Connor, J | A contemporary look at the ideologies of high level cricket
coaches: Creating environments to develop batting skill
122
PO13 Johnstone, J | Performance indicators of a winning team in domestic
English first-class twenty-twenty (t20) cricket
123
PO14 Bansal, H | Do elite Indian male batsmen and elite Indian male bowlers
differ in their fitness profile?
124
PO15 Johnstone, J | No association between bowling performance and
physiological responses of professional fast-medium bowlers
125
PO16 McCaig, S | The physical profile of an elite adolescent cricketer
126
PO17 Petersen, C | Cricket pace bowlers shoulder injuries: a systematic literature
review and suggestions for prevention
127
PO18 Barry, T | Spinal shrinkage and lateral flexion during eight overs of fast
bowling
128
PO19 Barry, T | Spine morphology in sagittal and frontal planes in fast bowlers
pre and post 8 overs of fast bowling using a novel skin surface measuring device
129
9
Keynote presentations
Low carb and high performance
Professor Peter BRUKNER OAM, MBBS, FACSP1
1 Specialist Sports and Exercise Physician Professor of Sports Medicine, Latrobe University Team
Doctor, Australian cricket team
In recent years there has been increased interest in low carbohydrate high fat (LCHF). Diets. There is some evidence
that LCHF diets may be preferable to the traditional low fat diet in relation to weight loss and lipid profile.
There has also been some interest in the use of LCHF in athletes. Prominent sports scientist and author of the runners'
bible "The Lore of Running", Professor Tim Noakes from Cape Town has been a strong advocate highlighting his
personal conversion from the high carbohydrate advocacy practiced by virtually all sports medicine professionals in the
last thirty years.
A number of prominent athletes including tennis player Novak Djokovic, NBA players Ray Allen, Kobe Bryant, Carmelo
Anthony and LeBron James, numerous endurance and ultra-endurance athletes, and closer to home, Australian
cricketers Shane Watson, Mitchell Johnson and Dave Warner as well as AFL superstar Gary Ablett have proclaimed the
benefits of LCHF or Paleo dieting.
For many years, nutrition professionals have been strong advocates of a diet high in complex carbohydrates as the ideal
diet for the athlete with endurance athletes encouraged to have very high carbohydrate intakes. Marathon runners
have traditionally carb loaded in the days prior to the event to ensure maximal glycogen stores.
The benefits of an LCHF diet in endurance and ultra-endurance sport is fairly convincing. Fat is a more efficient fuel than
carbohydrate at low intensity of exercise and one's fat stores last considerably longer than carbohydrate stores. As a
result there is not the need to constantly top up one's glycogen during endurance exercise. A recent example was
ironman Sami Inkinnen's row across the Pacific using only fat as fuel. He smashed the previous record.
However the benefits of LCHF in higher intensity intermittent sports such as basketball and the various football codes is
not as clear. It is argued that for bursts of high intensity activity, carbohydrates are a better fuel. This has led to the
train low compete high philosophy when a footballer, for example, will train on a low carb diet with the aim of
mobilizing his fat stores, but have an intake prior to and during matches to give him sufficient energy for those bursts of
high intensity activity.
For the past two years a number of the Australian cricket team have been following a LCHF diet. They have been happy
with their weight loss, energy levels and reduced appetite. I will present some of their case studies.
While the majority of young people metabolise carbohydrates well and do well on a high carbohydrate diet, there is a
group who may be better suited to an LCHF approach.
10
Keynote presentations
Anti doping in Asia is strong legislation the answer?
Professor Arjuna DE SILVA1
1 Sri Lanka Anti Doping Agency SLADA, Sri Lanka
With the creation of WADA 2004 the fight against doping became organized and effective. During the past ten years we
have made immense progress. However, the fight is unceasing and the enemy relentless. Fortunately, cricket has been
relatively spared of this cancer. The cases have been few and far between. However, with the advent of the T20 game
and the large amounts of money involved we must be vigilant that cricket will not be affected by the cancer that is
doping. There is nothing that can destroy the very fabric of the sport that we love than cheating. As we know that to
dope is to cheat.
Although the WADA code is a robust document and provides a broad framework in the fight against doping. It is
imperative that there is strong local legislation to support and enhance the code. Another issue which has been a major
flaw in the old code was that there was no way to punish any member of the "athlete entourage" who sometimes was
the real culprit. However, fortunately the 2015 code has corrected this anomaly. In Sri Lanka we have introduced
legislation that will enable us to punish any member of the athlete entourage who is involved in doping with a jail term
of up to 2 years or a fine. We believe that criminalization of doping is the way forward in the fight against doping.
However, establishing new legislation is not easy and it involves close cooperation between government and national
anti-doping agencies (NADO)'s. This is sometimes very difficult in the Asian region where government and NADO's
sometimes don't get see eye to eye. I would like to share our experience in bring our legislation to light.
Finally we must look to research into new methods for testing for banned substances, like saliva. As now even genetic
testing is done that way. As this will provide a less cumbersome method of testing athletes.
11
Keynote presentations
The back breaks before the wicket: the history of lumbar mechanics and
back injury - the UWA journey
Emeritus Professor Bruce C. Elliott PhD1, FACHPER, FISBS, FAAKPE1, Jacqueline Alderson1, Helen
Bayne2
1 The School of Sport Science, Exercise and Health, The University of Western Australia, Perth,
Australia
2 The High Performance Centre, University of Pretoria, South Africa
The beginning: It all started with Dennis Lillee and his breakdown with multiple lumbar fractures in the 1970s. As part
of the team that rehabilitated his back, thus enabling his successful return to test cricket, my appetite for lumbar injury
research was 'wetted'. However, the real desire to 'make a difference' and discover the aetiology of the debilitating
lumbar injury was created by the spate of lumbar fractures to talented adolescent fast bowlers in the 1980s.
LUMBAR INJURIES AND THE CRICKET FAST BOWLER
The journey was to be oh so simple! Injuries were logically linked to differences in side-on (SO) and front-on (FO)
bowling, with the FO bowlers suffering a higher incidence of injury. The analysis of four Australian fast bowlers showed
differences in kinematics and similarities in the ground reaction force at front foot impact (FFI), however, no link to
lumbar injuries was evident (Elliott & Foster, 1984). The journey had begun! A prospective study was then completed
that tracked 82 adolescent fast bowlers over a season (Foster et al., 1989). Thirty-eight percent of bowlers sustained a
lumbar injury; 11% a lumbar stress fracture (bony injury) and 27% a soft tissue injury. The three bowling characteristics
listed below were linked to those who sustained a bony injury:
Counter rotation of the shoulder alignment (SCR) (40° bony injury vs 16° non injured)
A greater ball release height
Excessive bowling
•
•
•
A series of studies then followed that investigated the association between these variables and lumbar disc
degeneration, as monitored using magnetic resonance imaging (Elliott et al., 1992, 1993). Again SCR was associated
with high levels of disc degeneration. Burnett et al. (1996) further showed that if this SCR and a new bowling category the mixed action were not remediated, then the incidence of lumbar disc degeneration would increase.
•
21% at ~14 years of age increased to 58% at ~17 years with no intervention.
The progression of disc degeneration was significantly related to those bowlers displaying levels of SCR ≥30° at both
testing sessions. Elliott and Khangure (2002) showed that you were able to both reduce SCR in a three year intervention
study and this change was paralleled by a significant reduction in the progression of lumbar disc degeneration.
This research never directly associated SCR with increased lumbar load leading to an increase in bony or disc
abnormalities. SCR was simply identified as an observable movement characteristic 'correlated' with degeneration that
could be addressed with technique modification.
Was part of the answer then 'fatigue' with bowlers modifying their SO or FO techniques and increasing their SCR as a
spell progressed (Burnett et al., 1995)? No, results were similar for 12 overs. There was some evidence that FO bowlers
increased the level of SCR - they became more' mixed' in their action. Pitch length was also shown to have minimal
effect on SCR, as bowlers from a variety of age classifications bowled with a similar shoulder rotation over pitch lengths
of (16 m, 18 m and 20.1 m)(Elliott et al., 2005).
Reviews were written (Bartlett et., 1996; Elliott, 2000) and a book (Elliott et al., 1989) produced to disseminate
knowledge, so that coaches and other sport scientists were conversant with the current scientific literature. A number
of technical papers followed that in some way 'backtracked' to validate previous procedures and compare bowling
techniques. The comparison of shoulder alignment in 2D from an overhead video camera and a 3D calculation (6
12
camera retro-reflective Vicon) both projected onto the transverse plane showed a strong association at back foot
impact (BFI) and FFI, but not at ball release (BR)(Elliott et al., 2002). Lumbar spinal movement for different bowling
classifications were analysed using a 3D electromagnetic Fastrack device (Burnett et al., 1998). Typically the mixed
compared with FO and SO techniques showed:
•
•
Greater lateral flexion and a more extended spine at FFI
A greater range of motion and angular velocity of the trunk about the lateral flexion and flexion/extension
axes
Ranson et al. (2008), while showing SCR was high, was not able to confirm the above results in a study examining 50
professional bowlers. The authors did however; highlight the extreme range of lumbar lateral flexion experienced
during fast bowling. In an effort to reduce SCR a harness was used during practice, however, no benefit was observed
once the harness was removed (Wallis et al., 2002).
By the end of the first decade of the 21st Century, lumbar injuries and concerns over bowling technique remained.
Ferdinands et al. (2010) and Portus et al. (2014 - for adolescents) showed that SCR was still an issue and it was found
that lumbar radiological abnormalities were still extremely high amongst adolescent bowlers (Crewe et al., 2012a).
Since the start of biomechanical research on fast bowlers,
approaches to discover the aetiology of lumbar injuries has
become more sophisticated. Portus et al. (2004) used a rig to
better analyse lumbar mechanics, while Ferdinands et al. (2009)
in analysing lumbar segment kinetics reported that loads were
greatest immediately after FFI and that there was significant
chance of injury when the spine was positioned near its end
range of motion. Further progress was made when Crewe et al.
(2013b, see figure) was able to develop a lumbar model and test
its sensitivity to inertial body segment parameter variations. This
model was then used to test lumbo-pelvic loading during fast
bowling (Crewe at al., 2012b) and augment the earlier work of
Engstrom et al. (2007) on quadratus lumborum muscle imbalance. Bowlers with ≥10% difference in quadratus
lumborum asymmetry (26 of 39 bowlers) experienced larger lumbo-pelvic lateral flexion (peak angle, moment and
power) compared with bowlers with ≤10% difference (Crewe et al., 2013a). In a prospective study that examined
musculoskeletal factors, bowling technique and lumbar load the following variables were identified as being key to the
aetiology of lumbar injury (Bayne et al., 2014).
•
•
•
•
•
Greater flexion and lateral flexion lumbar moments • Increased lateral flexion at FFI and BR
Pelvic alignment beyond FO at BR
Front hip flexion at FFI
Reduced trunk extensor muscle endurance
Core' control, based on a lumbar-pelvic stability test and single leg squat
Halley et al. (2014) attempted to affect change in these technique factors via a coaching intervention and were
successful in those bowlers who initially displayed dangerously high levels in these measures.
Conclusion: The level of radiological abnormalities and injuries in general to the lumbar spine is still a major concern to
bowlers, coaches and administrators. The message has not yet fully reached coaches, particularly those dealing with
adolescents. While SCR still must be addressed it is imperative for coaches to:
•
•
•
Reduce the level of trunk lateral flexion from FFI to BR
Increase pelvic and 'core' strength and control,
Manage workload - although not a focus of this paper, the research of Rebecca Dennis should be read
Remember to consider the whole body when making technical changes because of the mechanical interaction between
segments (Ferdinands et al., 2009).
13
References: UWA
Bartlett, R., Stockill, N., Elliott, B. & Burnett, A. The biomechanics of fast bowling in men's cricket: A review. J of Sports
Sciences, 14: 403-424, 1996.
Bayne, H., Elliott, B., Campbell, A. & Alderson. J. Lumbar load in adolescent fast bowlers: a prospective study. 2014 – In
review.
Burnett, A., Elliott, B. & R. Marshall. The effect of a 12-over spell on fast bowling technique in cricket. J of Sports
Sciences, 13(4): 329-341, 1995.
Burnett, A., Khangure, M., Elliott, B., Foster, D., Marshall, R. & Hardcastle, P. Thoracolumbar disc degeneration in young
fast bowlers in cricket: a follow-up study. Clinical Biomechanics, 11(6): 305-310, 1996.
Burnett, A., Barrett, C., Marshall, R., Elliott, B. & Day, R. Three-dimensional measurement of lumbar spine kinematics
for fast bowlers in cricket. Clinical Biomechanics, 13(8), 574-583, 1998.
Crewe, H., Elliott, B., Couanis, G., Campbell, A. & Alderson, J. The lumbar spine of the young fast bowler: An MRI study. J
of Science and Medicine in Sport, 15(3): 190-194, 2012a.
Crewe, H., Campbell, A., Elliott, B. & Alderson. J. Lumbo-pelvic loading during fast bowling in adolescent cricketers: The
influence of bowling speed and technique, . J of Sports Sciences, 31(10): 1082-1090, 2012b.
Crewe, H., Campbell, A., Elliott, B. & Alderson, J. Lumbo-pelvic biomechanics and quadratus lumborum asymmetry in
cricket fast bowlers. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, 45(4): 778-783,2013a.
Crewe, H., Campbell, A., Elliott, B. & Alderson. J. Kinetic sensitivity of a new lumbo-pelvic model to variation in segment
parameter input. J of Applied Biomechanics, 29(3): 354-359, 2013B.
Elliott, B. & Foster, D. A biomechanical analysis of the front on and side on fast bowling techniques. J of Human
Movement Studies, 10 (2): 83 94, 1984.
Elliott, B., Foster, D. & Blanksby, B. (Eds). Send The Stumps Flying, University of WA Press, 1989.
Elliott, B., Hardcastle, P., Burnett, A. & Foster, D. The influence of fast bowling and physical factors on radiological
features in high performance young fast bowlers. Sports Training Medicine and Rehabilitation. 3: 113-130, 1992.
Elliott, B., Davis, J., Khangure, M., Hardcastle, P. & Foster, D. Disc degeneration and the young fast bowler in cricket.
Clinical Biomechanics, 8(5): 227-234, 1993.
Elliott, B.C., Back injuries and the fast bowler in cricket. J of Sports Sciences, 18 (12), 983-991, 2000.
Elliott, B. & Khangure, M. Disc degeneration and the cricket fast bowler: an intervention study. Medicine and Science in
Sport and Exercise, 34(11): 1714-1718, 2002.
Elliott, B., Wallis, R., Sakurai, S., Lloyd, D. & Besier, T. The measurement of shoulder alignment in cricket fast bowling. J
of Sports Sciences, 20: 507-510, 2002.
Elliott, B., Plunkett, D. & Alderson, J. The effect of altered pitch length on performance and technique in junior fast
bowlers. J of Sports Sciences, 23(7): 661-667, 2005.
Foster, D., John, D., Elliott, B., Ackland, T. & Fitch, K. Back injuries to fast bowlers in cricket: A prospective study, British J
of Sports Medicine, 23(3): 150 - 154, 1989.
Halley, J., Cottam, D., Foster, D. & Alderson, J. Technique modification via coaching intervention: the key to reducing
lumbar injury risk in adolescent cricket fast bowlers? Honours thesis, The University of Western Australia, 2015.
Portus, M., Mason. B., Elliott, B., Pfitzer, M. & Done, R. Technique factors related to ball release speed and trunk
injuries in high performance cricket fast bowlers. Sports Biomechanics, 3 (2): 263-284, 2004.
Portus, M., Farhart, P., Elliott, B., Galloway, H., Orchard, J., Lloyd, D. & Heazlewood, I. Fast bowling biomechanics and
lumbar spine injuries: a dual cohort prospective study. In preparation, 2014.
14
Wallis, R., Elliott, B. & Koh, M. The effect of a fast bowling harness in cricket: an intervention study. J of Sports Sciences,
20: 495-506, 2002.
References: Other seminal papers
Engstrom, C., Walker, D., Kippers, V. & Mehnert, A. Quadratus lumborum asymmetry and L4 pars injury in fast bowlers:
a prospective study. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39(6): 910-917, 2007.
Ferdinands, R., Kersting, U. & Marshall, R. Three-dimensional lumbar segment kinetics of fast bowling in cricket. J of
Biomechanics, 42(11), 1616-1621, 2009.
Ferdinands, R., Kersting, U., Marshall, R. & Stuelcken, M. Distribution of modern cricket bowling actions in New Zealand.
European J of Sports Science, 10(3), 179-190, 2010.
Ranson, C., Burnett, C., King, M., Patel, N.& O'Sullivan, P. The relationship between bowling action classification and
three-dimensional lower trunk motion in fast bowlers in cricket. J of Sports Sciences, 26(3): 267-276, 2008.
15
Keynote presentations
Applying biomechanics in cricket coaching to produce elite batters and
bowlers
Dr René E.D FERDINANDS1
1 Faculty of Health Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
The world's elite batters and bowlers may have different styles, but underlying their performance is a strong foundation
of technique. So many strokes are available to the batter, each one suited for a particular type of delivery, and chosen
for a specific outcome - whether to defend, drive, cut, glance or even manipulate the bat to pierce the field or loft the
ball in the air, that the relationship between technical proficiency and performance is self-evident. And, in bowling,
whether it is: to bowl with speed and accuracy, swing the ball in the air both ways, or even invent a novel type of
delivery, like a doosra or carom ball - all these performance outcomes are functionally dependent on technique.
Indeed, the techniques of the game are so numerous and diverse, that cricketers require many years of learning and
practice before being able to play at the elite level.
It follows that the process of acquiring skills in cricket becomes more efficient with good coaching. However, the basis
of cricket technique has been founded largely upon previous practices and the subjective impressions of past players.
Useful as this may be – to formulate a theoretical understanding of cricket technique, it is necessary to call upon the
field of science that deals directly with human motion, which is biomechanics. The biomechanical concepts that apply
to cricket technique are many, including planes of motion, degrees of freedom, constraints, end-effector trajectory,
segmental sequencing, activation of stretch shortening cycle, segmental velocity contribution; concepts that must
operate within the laws of dynamics governed by Newton's Laws of Motion. Hence, the cricket biomechanist begins by
transforming the conventional notions of the game into a mechanical paradigm. The bat, for instance, is referred to as
an end-effector, and its motion as the set of allowable trajectories permitted by the degrees of freedom of the
shoulder-arm complex, modeled as a dynamic configuration of anatomical constraints. Similarly, in bowling, the motion
of the bowling arm is considered to operate within a three-dimensional constraint space, its optimum height
dependent on the thoracic-arm coupling to optimize the kinetic link principle, namely the SSC and summation of
velocities, and acceleration-displacement curve.
Cricket is a sport that demands technical proficiency from its players. The importance of formulating a qualitative
schema to understand and apply biomechanics in cricket is required, so that coaches and players can more easily
determine the relationship between cricket technique and biomechanics. Somewhat paradoxically, when this is done,
cricket technique will become easier to understand and apply. In the qualitative mode, biomechanics tends towards a
continuum functional approach rather than discrete cut-off model approach, the former leading to technical diversity.
By treating the techniques executed in cricket as dependent on s system of interacting musculoskeletal levers, subject
to dynamics and kinematics principles, then the diversity of cricket technique becomes fully apparent, revealing new
domains of performance not previously considered by players. So for the elite coaches and players of the future,
biomechanics will become an indispensable tool for performance enhancement.
16
Keynote presentations
Relationship between workload and pace bowler injury in cricket
John ORCHARD1
1 Cricket Australia & Cricket New South Wales
Aims: Following previous Australian cricket publications on the topic (1-4), to assess workload-related risk factors for
injuries in elite cricket fast bowlers, with an emphasis on tissue types.
Methods: 235 fast bowlers exposed to 12659 player matches over a period of 15 seasons (1998-99 to 2012-13
inclusive) were followed in a prospective cohort risk factor study to compare overs bowled in each match (including
preceding workload patterns) and injury risk in the 3-4 weeks subsequent to the match. Injuries were categorised
according to the affected tissue type as either: bone stress, tendon injuries, muscle strain or joint injuries. Workload
risk factors were examined using binomial logistic regression multivariate analysis, with a forward stepwise procedure
requiring a significance of <0.05.
Results: For tendon injuries, high acute match workload and high previous season workload were risk factors, but high
medium term (three month workload) was protective. For bone stress injuries, high medium term workload and low
career workload were risk factors. For joint injuries, high previous season and career workload were risk factors. There
was little relationship between muscle injury and workload although high previous season workload was slightly
protective.
Discussion and Conclusions: The level of injury risk for some tissue types varies in response to preceding fast bowling
workload, with tendon injuries most affected by workload patterns. Workload planning may need to be individualised
depending on individual susceptibility to various injury types. This study supports the theory that tendons are at lowest
risk with consistent workloads and susceptible to injury with sudden upgrades in workload. Gradual upgrades are
recommended, particularly at the start of a bowler's career to reduce the risk of bone stress injury. The greatest risk
factor for muscle injuries was playing short-form cricket and hence muscle injuries are not related to high pace bowling
workloads.
References:
Dennis R, Farhart P, Goumas C, et al. Bowling workload and the risk of injury in elite cricket fast bowlers. J Sci Med Sport
2003;6(3):359-67
Hulin B, Gabbett T, Blanch P, et al. Spikes in acute workload are associated with increased injury risk in elite cricket fast
bowlers. Br J Sports Med 2014;48:708-12
Orchard J, James T, Portus M, et al. Fast Bowlers in Cricket Demonstrate Up to 3- to 4-Week Delay Between High
Workloads and Increased Risk of Injury. Am J Sports Med 2009;37:1186-92
Orchard JW, Blanch P, Paoloni J, et al. Fast bowling match workloads over 5-26 days and risk of injury in the following
month. J Sci Med Sport 2015; 18: 26-30.
17
Oral presentations
Injury risk monitor for cricket: Proof of concept from SAP
Kasem ABOTEL1
1 Senior Director, Product Management at SAP
The sport of cricket has changed remarkably over the last decade, with more matches being played in each season and
with the introduction of variant forms of the game. The traditional calendar for each country has now been
consolidated, with more T20 and one-day internationals. Due to the increased amount of cricket being played at both
the domestic and international levels and varying degrees of workload for players in different forms of the game, the
rate of injury has also increased (Orchard et al. ,2006) This is especially acute for the fast-bowler position, which records
the highest rate of injury.
Previous studies have indicated that there are certain factors that predispose a bowler to the risk of an injury, including
inadequate physical fitness, high bowling workload and improper bowling technique. By analysing historical injury
surveillance data, which can now be taken routinely during professional cricket matches (Ranson et al., 2013), coaches,
team doctors and physiotherapists can determine the correlation between these factors and how they increase the
probability of a certain type of injury
Injury Risk Monitor is a proof of concept developed by enterprise software applications provider SAP that explores the
art of possible in applying the latest technologies in analytics and in-memory computing to sports injury prevention.
The prototype incorporates historical and sensor data from wearable devices to help monitor and predict risk of injury.
Injury Risk Monitor is designed to transform this data into meaningful information and simple visualisations for coaches
and medical professionals so that they can identify and collaboratively address the risk of injury in their players. The
proof of concept includes various data types to build individualised risk profiles, such as actual workload, vital health
statistics, bowling technique, age, sleep quality and others and analyses this data applying predictive models that
calculate propensities for injuries to the lower back, knee, hamstring and others.
Based on the predictions, the prototype can suggest corrective or preventive measures such as a schedule of preventive
check-ups, correcting the bowling techniques, adequate rest periods and changes in schedules. In the current iteration
of the prototype, the development team is working with various international experts to define best practice in the
collection of data and developing the appropriate algorithms to provide meaningful insights from the data. The
ultimate aim is to develop a proof of concept that can ultimately help players reduce disruptions in their careers due to
injury.
References:
Orchard J, James T, and Portus M. (2006). Injuries to elite male cricketers in Australia over a 10-year period. Journal of
Science and Medicine in Sport ;9, 459–67.
Ranson,C., Hurley,R. Rugless, L., Mansingh, A., Cole, J. International cricket injury surveillance: a report of five teams
competing in the ICC Cricket World Cup 2011. British Journall of Sports Medicine,, 47, 637–643.
18
Oral presentations
The shoulder in cricket: What's causing all the painful shoulders?
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
Manit ARORA1, Sunil H. Shetty1, Mandeep S. Dhillon2
1 Department of Orthopaedics, Padmashree Dr DY Patil Hospital and Research Centre, Navi
Mumbai, India
2 Department of Orthopaedics, Post-graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research,
Chandigarh, India
Aims: Shoulder injuries account for roughly 5% of all injuries sustained by cricketers (1), most likely an underestimation
of a larger problem facing the sport. The cause for shoulder injuries has been sparsely investigated among cricketers.
The aim of this review is to summarize the available literature on possible mechanism for shoulder injuries among
cricketers.
Methods: MEDLINE and EMBASE (Search terms: “cricket” AND “shoulder injuries”; “cricket” AND “rotator cuff tears”;
“cricket” AND “impingement”; and associated synonyms) were performed in March 2014. The authors further
canvassed the reference list of selected articles and online search engines such as Google Scholar. Inclusion criteria
were studies that assessed shoulder injuries among cricketers. A total of 9 studies were identified on primary search,
and later expanded to 15 studies.
Results: Bowlers and fielders are most frequently affected by shoulder injuries (accounting for roughly 90% of cases of
shoulder pain), likely a result of their overhead throwing actions (2). A number of possible theories (4) have been
proposed as to the cause for shoulder pain among cricketers including: scapular dyskinesia (cricketers have downward
rotated scapulas), glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (2 studies have identified GIRD of approx.. 30 degrees in the
dominant and painful shoulder) and weak musculature surrounding the cuff (decreased firing activity of biceps and
infraspinatus during bowling). Most cricketers with shoulder pain appear to have an increase in external rotation and
loss of internal rotation range of motion in the affected shoulder.
Discussion and Conclusions: We propose a combined mechanism of injury that results in shoulder pain among
cricketers (the model is included in our final poster). Further work is needed to identify the cause of the problem and
implement targeted interventions aimed at each step of the proposed pathway.
References:
Orchard J, James T, Alcott E, Carter S, Farhart P. Injuries in Australian cricket at first class level 1995/1996 to 2000/2001.
Br J Sports Med. 2002 Aug;36(4):270–274; discussion 275.
Ranson C, Gregory PL. Shoulder injury in professional cricketers. Phys Ther Sport Off J Assoc Chart Physiother Sports
Med. 2008 Feb;9(1):34–9.
Gregory PL, Batt ME, Wallace WA. Comparing injuries of spin bowling with fast bowling in young cricketers. Clin J Sport
Med Off J Can Acad Sport Med. 2002 Mar;12(2):107–12.
Burkhart SS, Morgan CD, Kibler WB. The disabled throwing shoulder: spectrum of pathology Part I: pathoanatomy and
biomechanics. Arthrosc J Arthrosc Relat Surg Off Publ Arthrosc Assoc North Am Int Arthrosc Assoc. 2003 Apr;19(4):404–
20.
19
Oral presentations
Understanding the interpersonal neurobiology of coaching athletes and
how to foster high performing athletes in pressure environments in cricket
Dane BARCLAY1
1 The Performance and Sport Psychology Clinic, Melbourne, Australia
Aims: Based on clinical and sport research and using a theory driven approach derived from the key tenets of
Interpersonal Neurobiology (IPNB) the aim is promote a greater understanding of the varying dimensions of
performance, as to how evolution, and a cricketer’s own personal experience shapes their barriers to performance
consistency. Furthermore, IPNB would also determine how effectively coaches can alter the stress response of a
cricketer under competitive conditions.
In an applied setting using the tenets of IPNB (Siegal), Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Schema Therapy
(Young), a model has been developed to help coaches and key personnel in athletes that could be applied to cricket to
foster a greater capacity to perform when under high stress contexts. As the mind regulates the flow of energy and
resources, it essentially enters into an ongoing relational process with its environment – moment to moment. IPNB
stresses the importance of secure emotional relationships in building high functioning competence, such as between
coaches and players. There are many neuroimaging studies that demonstrate how the brain can change adaptively
(neuroplasticity) due to the fostering of healthy secure relationships and the capacity to interact with previously
uncomfortable experiences in new and adaptive ways. Placed in a cricket context, this may affect a batsman’s ability to
be more flexible with his batting repertoire whilst facing certain balls, bowlers or conditions and execute shots
competently.
As humans are social beings, social pain is encoded in the brain as physical pain. Thus both forms of pain signal a danger
to ‘survival’. An athlete’s relationship to this pain affects the degree of impairment in attentional focus when under
pressure, leading to a distraction from task execution which could lead to inconsistency in performance. A coach’s
capacity to help de-escalate stress responses (e.g. cortisol levels) and expand the cricketer’s emotional experience is
the key for maintaining task focus while experiencing discomfort in its many forms.
The presentation will discuss the growing body of research and discuss the practical implications of how to implement
this in high performance environments in cricket.
References:
Hayes, S.C., Strosahl, K., & Wilson, K.G. (1999). Acceptance and commitment therapy: An experiential approach to
behavior change. New York: Guilford Press.
Young, J.E., Klosko, J.S., & Weishaar, M.E. (2003). Schema therapy: A practitioner’s guide. New York: Guilford Press
Siegel, D.J (2001) Toward an interpersonal neurobiology of the developing mind: Attachment relationships, “mindsight’
and neural integration. Infant Mental Health Journal 22, 62-94
20
Oral presentations
The relationship between arm kinematics and ball angular velocity in
cricket spin bowling
Theme: Biomechanics of Technique and Performance
Aaron J. BEACH1, René E.D Ferdinands1, Peter J. Sinclair1
1 Exercise and Sport Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney Australia
Aims: In the sport of cricket, spin bowlers impart spin to the ball to create deviations in the flight and off the pitch in an
attempt to defeat the batsman. Although the coaching literature specifies some fundamental techniques of spin
bowling (Cricket Australia, 2010), it is not clear whether they contribute to spin rate in either off-spin or leg-spin
bowling. Furthermore, there has been no biomechanics research on the technical factors of spin bowling associated
with spin rate. Hence, in this study, we measured the angular velocities of the trunk and bowling arm to test for
correlations with spin rate.
Methods: 23 off-spin and 20 leg-spin bowlers of sub-elite club level were tested in the laboratory using a 14 camera
Cortex Motion Analysis System (v 3.6 Motion Analysis Corp., USA) operating at 200Hz. 52 retro-reflective markers were
attached to the body, and 3 to the ball. The delivery with the highest spin rate was selected for analysis using
customized scripts in MATLAB (The Mathworks, version 7.14.0). For analysis, the leg-spin and off-spin groups were
treated separately, and further subdivided into pronation and supination categories based on forearm rotation velocity
at release. Correlations between the joint angular velocities and ball angular velocity (spin rate) were performed in SPSS
(IBM, version 21) and were reported for P <0.05.
Results: Significant correlations with spin rate were; the time of maximum hip flexion velocity (r = -0.64) for the leg-spin
group, and the maximum thorax flexion velocity (r = 0.441) for the off-spin group. More such correlations were found
for the supinating off-spin subgroup: the maximum hip flexion velocity (r = 0.776), maximum thorax flexion velocity (r =
0.772), maximum wrist flexion velocity (r = -0.828), and wrist adduction velocity at release (r = 0.79). In contrast for the
pronating off spin group, only the time of maximum trunk abduction velocity (r = -0.593) was significant. For the legspin supinating group, significant correlations were found for the time of maximum hip flexion velocity (r = -0.778) and
maximum wrist flexion velocity (r = 0.661), differing from the pronating group, which had significant correlations for
maximum elbow abduction velocity (r = -0.802) and elbow abduction velocity at release (r = -0.761).
Discussion and Conclusions: The data shows that differentiating between leg-spin and off-spin is problematic because
different sets of correlations were found based on whether these spin bowlers pronated or supinated at release. For
example, within the group of off-spin pronating bowlers, only the time of maximum trunk abduction velocity was
correlated. However, for the group of supinating bowlers, maximum thorax flexion and hip flexion velocities were
correlated with spin rate, indicating a reliance on the large body segments. In addition, the maximum wrist flexion
velocity, and wrist adduction velocity at release were also correlated to ball spin rate, data that may indicate the
integral hand and forearm mechanics of supinating off-spin. Similarly, the leg-spin pronating and supinating groups had
different kinematic correlations with spin rate; the former having an elbow abduction velocity correlation, compared to
the latter having maximum hip flexion velocity and wrist flexion velocity correlations.
References:
Cricket Australia. (2010). Level Two (Advanced) Coaching Program Candidate Manual. Jolimont, Vic: Cricket Australia.
21
Oral presentations
The use of heart rate, high-speed running and accelerometry in limited
overs cricket to measure training load in fast bowling
Theme: Exercise Physiology & Nutrition
James BRAY1, Mark Fogarty, Grant Abt
1 The University of Hull, kingston upon hull, UK
Aims: Twenty20 and One-Day matches are the shortest and fastest forms of cricket [1]. Since the introduction of
Twenty20, the stereotype that cricket is not physically demanding, is now being challenged [1]. Enhancing our
knowledge of the physical demands in these types of cricket will be critical to allow coaching staff to develop sport
specific conditioning programs [1]. A fundamental consideration for all involved in player conditioning is the
quantification of training load (TL), subsequent prescription of training and recovery and how these vary across players
[2] and competition. Measures of TL are characterised into; the physiological responses (internal TL) and the player
movement patterns and activity profiles (external TL) [3]. Internal TL requires the quantification of the physiological
stress imposed on an athlete by exercise, which can be viewed as an athlete’s response to stimuli (i.e. external TL).
Recent advances in Global Positioning Systems (GPS) incorporate tri-axial accelerometers that provide the ability to
reflect the external loading on the athlete caused by changes in speed and direction. Despite these new developments
there is a paucity of research examining the quantification of TL in fast bowlers during Twenty20 and One-Day matches.
To date, Petersen and colleagues [1, 4] are the only authors to present fast bowling match-play data using GPS systems.
Data from these studies have shown that fast bowlers cover the greatest total distances and experience more time
.
-1
spent at high-speed activity (≥14 4km.h ) in all game formats. The complex and intermittent nature of competition is
unstable and subject to variation between matches. While variability in selected internal and external TL during
Twenty20 matches has previously been described [1, 2], to date, no study has examined both the match-to-match
variability nor provided comparisons in activity profile between competitive blocks of professional Twenty20 and OneDay cricket in England. The aims of this study were to a) quantify both internal and external TL measures (heart rate,
high-speed running & accelerometry) in both Twenty20 and One-Day cricket fast bowling and b) identify the withinand between-match variability of internal and external TL.
Methods: Following institutional ethics committee approval, 9, male, first team fast bowlers from a professional English
County Cricket team competing in the domestic T20 (n = 7) and One-Day (n = 8) competitions provided written
informed consent to participate. Heart rate, GPS and accelerometry match data (T20: n = 7; One-Day: n = 8,
respectively) will be collected using a MinimaxX 5Hz GPS unit with integrated 100Hz tri-axial accelerometer (MEMS;
Team Sports v2.5, Catapult Innovations, Melbourne, Australia). A total of 68 individual match files will be analyzed.
Results: The data collection period is still ongoing therefore results are to follow.
Discussion and Conclusions: Early data analysis suggests that the within-match between-over HR and PlayerLoad™
(derived from accelerometry) demonstrates an acceptable level of reliability (≤ 5% CV) for measuring the physical
demands in limited overs cricket, which is not the case for high-speed running.
References:
Petersen, C., D.B. Portus, and M.R. Dawson, Quantifying positional movement patterns in Twenty20 cricket.
International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 2009. 9(2): p. 165-170.
Petersen, C.J., et al., Comparison of player movement patterns between 1-day and test cricket. J Strength
2011. 25(5): p. 1368-73.
Cond Res,
Cummins, C., et al., Global positioning systems (GPS) and microtechnology sensors in team sports: a systematic review.
Sports Med, 2013. 43(10): p. 1025-42.
Petersen, C., et al., Variability in movement patterns during One Day Internationals by a cricket fast bowler. Int J Sports
Physiol Perform, 2009. 4(2): p. 278-81.
22
Oral presentations
A review of hamstring strain injuries in cricket and potential methods to
reduce the high occurrence of strains
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
Wade CHALKER1, Justin Keogh1, David Opar2, Anthony Shield3
1 Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine, Bond University, Gold Coast, Australia
2 Faculty of Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia
3 School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane,
Australia
Aims: Cricket was once regarded as a “moderate injury risk” sport. However, more recent statistics suggests that the
injury rate in elite cricket is rising, with hamstring strain injuries one of the most common and severe injuries (Frost and
Chalmers, 2014). Therefore, the aims of the present study are to (1) review the literature surrounding cricket injuries,
especially those to the hamstrings and (2) highlight hamstring injury prevention protocols used in other sports that may
reduce the incidence and/or severity of hamstring strains in cricket.
Methods: The literature reviewed in this paper was sourced using SPORTDiscus, Pubmed and Embase databases. Key
words included; cricket, hamstrings, strains, injuries, prevention and Nordic hamstring exercises. Articles were searched
from 1969-2014, obtaining full text articles. Articles that matched key words in the abstract were included for review.
Further articles were sourced after review of article reference lists if the articles were relevant to the key words. From
the abstract review, articles were included if they related to cricket injuries, hamstring strains, causation, treatment or
prevention.
Discussion and Conclusions: Multiple cricket playing nations have documented the occurrence of cricket injuries over
several seasons and all have demonstrated an increase in injuries over recent times with the introduction of Twenty20
cricket and the increase in matches played per year (Frost and Chalmers, 2014, Orchard et al., 2011). International
cricket injury reports suggest that pace bowlers are most at risk of incurring an injury (Frost and Chalmers, 2014,
Orchard et al., 2011). Hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) in cricket account for 8-11.1% of all injuries (Frost and Chalmers,
2014, Orchard et al., 2011). This appears similar to Australian Rules Football (HSI occurrence rate of 7-14%)
(Hrysomallis, 2013), suggesting that HSIs are just as common in cricket as they are in other high intensity sports. Little is
known as to what predisposes cricket players to HSIs but other sporting models suggest that risk factors can be;
hamstring muscle weakness, increasing age, previous hamstring injury, lack of hamstring flexibility, poor lumbar
posture, muscle fatigue and biomechanical abnormalities. Hamstring strength imbalances can be of particular problem
for cricket players, in particular, pace bowlers due to the asymmetrical demands of fast bowling and throwing.
Addressing strength imbalances and improving eccentric hamstring strength have been proposed as a key component
of HSI prevention. The Nordic hamstring exercise in particular could provide cricket players a feasible and effective way
to reduce the risk of sustaining a HSI and reducing the number of HSIs occurring in cricket throughout the world. Shield
and Opar (2012) have recently developed and validated a hamstring testing device for the assessment of eccentric
hamstring strength and between-leg asymmetries. We would therefore recommend that elite cricket players adapt
training models from other sports that target HSI risk factors so to reduce the risk as much as possible and employ
regular eccentric hamstring training and assessment, easily performed using the device developed by Shield and Opar
(2012).
References:
FROST, W. L. & CHALMERS, D. J. 2014. Injury in elite New Zealand cricketers 2002-2008: descriptive epidemiology. Br J
Sports Med, 48, 1002-7.
ORCHARD, J., JAMES, T., KOUNTOURIS, A., BLANCH, P., SIMS, K. & ORCHARD, J. 2011. Injury Report 2011: Cricket
Australia. Sport Health, 29, 16-29.
23
HRYSOMALLIS, C. 2013. Injury Incidence, Risk Factors and Prevention in Australian Rules Football. Sports Medicine, 43,
339-354.
SHIELD, A. J. & OPAR, D. A. 2012. Eccentric Hamstring Strength Testing Device. International Patent
PCT/AU2012/001041.2012
24
Oral presentations
Eccentric hamstring strength asymmetries and the effect of augmented
feedback in elite cricket players: A pilot study
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
Wade CHALKER1, Justin Keogh1, David Opar2, Anthony Shield3
1 Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine, Bond University, Gold Coast, Australia
2 Faculty of Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia
3 School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane,
Australia
Aims: Hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) account for 8-11.1% of all injuries in first class cricket (Frost and Chalmers, 2012).
Although HSIs do occur in batsmen and fielders, it is the pace bowlers who are most prone to this injury type (Frost and
Chalmers, 2012). Low eccentric strength and asymmetries between limbs have been suggested to increase the risk of
HSIs (Opar et al., 2012). This may be a critical factor for HSI incidences in cricket, especially for fast bowlers who place
more stress on the front leg during the bowling phase. One possible way to increase eccentric strength and reduce
asymmetries in knee flexor strength and therefore potentially rates of HSIs, may be to provide real-time augmented
feedback on force outputs during knee flexor strength assessments and resistance training sessions. Therefore, the
aims of this pilot study are to (1) gain some preliminary data on elite cricket player’s eccentric knee flexor strength and
potential between-limb asymmetries, (2) and assess the effect of augmented feedback via real-time visual force
outputs during knee flexor strength testing in reducing between-limb force output asymmetries.
Methods: Twenty elite level cricket players representing a state team were recruited to participate in the study. The
study was conducted over an eleven week training period during the start of the pre-season training. Testing was
conducted once a week on consecutive weeks. A total of 9 players completed the entire eleven week intervention.
Eccentric hamstring strength was assessed using the device developed by Shield and Opar (2012), which allows realtime force outputs to be recorded during a Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE). Participants all completed a standardized
warm-up followed by one maximal set of three repetitions of the NHE. Opar et al. (2013) recently reported that this
protocol provides a reliable measure for eccentric knee flexor strength. A cross-over design study was used with half of
the participants receiving augmented visual feedback of their force outputs in the first four weeks of training (AF group)
and the second half receiving augmented feedback in the second four week block of training (NF group). A pre, mid and
post intervention test was conducted at weeks one, six and eleven to assess the chronic effect of augmented feedback
on knee flexor force output.
Results: The mean eccentric hamstring force output was recorded at the start of pre-season training for the entire
group (n=20, 289.97N ±58.8 and 323.56N ±70.3 for left and right respectively), and compared between the bowlers
(n=12, 294N ±61.8 and 329.8N ±63.4 for left and right respectively) and the batters (n=8, 284N ±57.6 and 314.3N ±83.3
for left and right respectively). There was a 9.8% eccentric hamstring strength imbalance across the entire group. The
AF group (n=7) had a significant increase in force output for both mid and post measures when compared to preintervention measures (P < 0.05), while no significant effect was seen for the NF group (n=2). While non-significant,
possible trends for reductions in limb asymmetry for the AF group were observed with augmented feedback from pre
(7.1%) to mid (3.1%), with this maintained when feedback was removed to the post-intervention (3.9%) tests. Small
changes were observed for the NF group from pre (7.6%) to mid (6.2%) and post-intervention (3%) tests.
Discussion and Conclusions: The use of augmented feedback appears to significantly increase eccentric hamstring
strength and may possibly reduce between limb strength asymmetries. This suggests that such feedback may be able to
reduce the risk of HSIs.
References:
FROST, W. L. & CHALMERS, D. J. 2012. Injury in elite New Zealand cricketers 2002–2008: descriptive epidemiology.
British Journal of Sports Medicine.
25
OPAR, D. A., WILLIAMS, M. D. & SHIELD, A. J. 2012. Hamstring strain injuries: factors that lead to injury and re-injury.
Sports Med, 42, 209-26.
SHIELD, A. J. & OPAR, D. A. 2012. Eccentric Hamstring Strength Testing Device. International Patent
PCT/AU2012/001041.2012
OPAR, D. A., PIATKOWSKI, T., WILLIAMS, M. D. & SHIELD, A. J. 2013. A Novel Device Using the Nordic Hamstring Exercise
to Assess Eccentric Knee Flexors Strength: A Reliability and Retrospective Injury Study. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther.
26
Oral presentations
Impact of batting skill on pacing during repeated sprints between the
wickets
Theme: Exercise Physiology & Nutrition
Candice CHRISTIE1, Andrea Elliott1
1 Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa
Aims: The manner of resource allocation and pacing employed by batsmen when repeatedly sprinting between the
wickets has not been established. In addition, the contribution or influence of skill level and experience is also not yet
known. More experienced, or skilled, batsmen may be better able to develop and implement a pacing strategy
compared to less skilled batsmen. Thus the purpose of this study was to compare skilled and less skilled batsmen in
assessing whether the absence of a known end point at the beginning of repeated sprint bouts between the wickets
affects pacing strategies.
Methods: Twenty-four male cricketers from a university league were selected. Twelve skilled batsmen (players in the
top five batting order), and 12 less skilled batsmen (players in the bottom five batting order) completed three
experimental trials. All trials required batsmen to complete the same number of shuttle sprints (14 shuttles, 28 runs),
but the information provided before each trial differed. Control Trial: Batsmen were aware of the exercise
requirements (end point). Unknown Trial: Batsmen were not informed of the exercise end point and were required to
run on command for an indefinite period (28 runs). Deceptive Trial: Batsmen were incorrectly informed of the number
of sprints (told they were only doing 14 runs when in fact they were doing 28 runs). Muscle activity of the hamstring
and quadriceps muscles (via electromyography), sprint times and Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) (central and local)
were obtained during all three trials.
Results: There were significant (p<0.05) group effects for sprint times and RPE. Skilled batsmen recorded faster mean
sprint times while the less skilled batsmen reported higher mean ‘central’ and ‘local’ RPE ratings in all trials. There were
no significant group effects for muscle activation. Skilled batsmen did, however, have lower muscle activation
compared to the less-skilled batsmen. Furthermore, there was a trend towards decreased sprint times and muscle
activation over time alongside increasing RPE ratings in all trials. Skilled batsmen were faster but had lower muscle
activation levels and RPE ratings. These skilled batsmen also performed best in the deceptive trial while the less skilled
batsmen performed best in the control trial.
Discussion and Conclusions: Less skilled batsmen were better able to pace themselves when the end point was known.
When the end point was not known, performance decreased. In contrast, skilled batsmen paced themselves better
across all trials, performing particularly well when the endpoint was unknown. This may indicate the strong influence of
the skilled batsmen’s subconscious control and thus, with the input from previous experience, the selection of
appropriate pacing strategies. It can thus be concluded that prior experience is pivotal for repeated sprint performance
during batting particularly, when the endpoint is not known.
27
Oral presentations
A survey of best practice strength and conditioning for cricket fast bowlers
Theme: Strength & Conditioning
John CRONIN1,2, Bryan Stronach1,3, Marc Portus4
1 Sport Performance Research Institute New Zealand, AUT University, NZ
2 School of Exercise, Biomedical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Australia
3 New Zealand Cricket, Christchurch, NZ
4 Movement Science, Australian Institute of Sport, Canberra
Aims: The conditioning of cricket fast bowlers has received very little attention and therefore the purpose of this survey
was to collate expert’s opinion on strength and conditioning best practice for cricket fast bowlers. Questions were
aimed at gaining consensus of opinion as to: 1) the specific field based tests that are best used to assess and monitor
the specific fitness qualities of the cricket fast bowler; 2) the fitness qualities most important for the time of the season
and developmental stage of the fast bowler; and, 3) best practice for maintenance of these fitness qualities through an
in-season.
Methods: Using the Delphi method, a series of surveys were administered to a total of 61 fast bowling experts, who
included strength and conditioning coaches, physiotherapist’s, skills coaches and players, all of whom were specialists
in the area of fast bowling and had five plus year at first class or international level cricket.
Results: The main findings of these surveys were that strength (94.1%) and anaerobic fitness (94%) rated the most
important conditioning aspect for fast bowlers across three formats of the game, with strength also rating as most
important regardless of the development level of the bowler and the time of the season. A significant percentage (91%)
of the experts believed that all conditioning areas could be maintained and potentially improved during the in-season
of a busy international or domestic cricket season. It was proposed that this could mostly be achieved via performing
one high intensity session every 10 days. Furthermore the experts suggested that all these qualities, with the exception
of strength, could be trained/maintained via the demands of playing the game.
Discussion and Conclusions: From the information presented it would seem that after completion of a general training
program where bowlers have had a focus on strength (including power and eccentric training), aerobic conditioning,
anthropometric and flexibility aspects, bowlers should focus on developing lower-body speed (explosive and repetitive)
and anaerobic upper-body power. Greater flexibility around the lower lumbar and hamstrings could be needed within
the bowling group because of the technical movements that occur during the bowling delivery. Attention needs to be
given to the ideal anthropometry of the fast bowler. It would seem beneficial for the fast bowler to be as lean as
practical to reduce the GRFs they have to endure during an over, innings and game. This can be achieved through
reduction of fat or through the reduction of unnecessary muscle mass. Careful consideration needs to be given to
functional mass changes and the anthropometric blueprint for the fast bowler. A long-term approach is needed for the
physical preparation of the fast bowler, based on achieving fitness milestones. The length and focus of the program
depends largely on three main factors: 1) the length of the individual’s off-season compared to in-season; 2) the
development level of the bowler; and, 3) the musculo-skeletal maturity of the individual bowler.
28
Oral presentations
Key movements and skills of wicket-keepers in one day international
cricket
Theme: Strength & Conditioning
John CRONIN1,2, Danielle MacDonald1, Michael McGuigan1, Richard Stretch3
1 Sport Performance Research Institute New Zealand, AUT University, NZ
2 School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Australia
3 Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa
Aims: Despite its global popularity, there is a paucity of research in cricket fielding; particularly in regards to the
understanding of physical and technical requirements of different fielding positions. The aim of this study was to
quantify the movement and skill demands of One Day International wicket-keeping so that a more complete
understanding of the performance demands of this position is understood.
Methods: Eight games from the 2011 ODI World Cup were event-coded using the performance analysis software
SportsCode.
Results: The wicket-keeper was found to be the fielder most involved in the game, taking 32% of all fielding contacts.
The crouch is a sine qua non movement, the wicket-keeper performing it every ball of the innings. Following this, ≈75%
of the wicket-keepers movement were lateral, either in the form of a shuffle or step. The wicket-keeper also had to
perform occasional bouts of reactive, explosive, high intensity efforts such as diving and jumping (on average 5 times
per innings) Catching the ball, be it a take from the bowler, a catch or receiving a throw from another fielder is by far
the most important and most performed skill (≈69% of all skill activity) for wicket-keepers. The underarm throw was the
throwing technique most used (30% of skills); however when under pressure the sidearm or overarm technique was
used.
Discussion and Conclusions: The findings of this study provide valuable information for skill and strength and
conditioning coaches, so that training and conditioning can be appropriately prescribed in order to improve wicketkeeping performance. The only other attempt to quantify the skill demands in cricket (Shilbury, 1990) quantified only
four fielding activities; fielded ball, fielded ball and underarm throw, fielded ball and overarm throw, and catches and
attempted catches. The results of this performance analysis provide insight into how the training and assessment of
wicket-keepers may be guided. Naturally the assessment battery informs the type of strength and conditioning work
that the wicket-keeper should undertake. A vital requirement for wicket-keepers is repetitive, multi-planar, lowintensity exercise with intermittent bouts of explosive movement. Given this information it would seem that a solid
strength/strength endurance base in tandem with high aerobic fitness would be advantageous. Multi-planar leg
strength and power both of an acyclic and cyclic nature would seem fundamental to the training of these players, the
emphasis more so on lateral ability. Dedicated reactive agility and change of direction training with pads off and on is
recommended. This type of training should be interspersed with dedicated straight sprint type training of varying
distances. It should be noted that while movements and skills have been analysed and discussed separately, wicketkeeping requires the combination of both movements and skills, and therefore assessment and training which
combines both movement and skill execution may best improve wicket-keeping performance.
References:
Shilbury, D. (1990). An analysis of fielding patterns of an 'A' grade cricket team Sports Coach, 41 - 44.
29
Oral presentations
Development of a standardised system for the assessment of suspected
illegal bowling action in cricket
Theme: New Developments In Cricket Technology
Andrea Giovani CUTTI1, Craig Ranson2, Angus Burnett3, Ben Leaver4
1 Consultant to International Cricket Council, Dubai
2 Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, UK
3 Aspetar, Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar
4 International Cricket Council, Dubai
Background: The laws of cricket state that during the bowling action, elbow extension greater than 15° from the time
the upper arm is horizontal to when the ball is released is considered a no-ball. Due to the difficulties in attaining
accurate bowling arm data in match conditions, players with suspected illegal bowling actions are referred for
laboratory-based assessment. In the past, guidelines for quantifying the magnitude of elbow extension have been open
to interpretation, which has resulted in a variety of methods being employed (Chin et al., 2009, Ferdinands and
Kersting, 2007; Portus et al., 2006; King and Yeadon, 2012). Specific aspects of bowling action assessment that have
been subject to debate include: whether cluster-based or individual marker based measurement systems are most
appropriate; how the axes of rotation of the elbow should be defined and; how elbow hyperextension (which is
discounted within the allowed 15° of elbow extension) should be considered.
Aim: To produce a standardised system for laboratory based assessment of suspected illegal bowling actions in cricket.
Methods: In 2013 the ICC commissioned a panel of experts to produce a data collection, processing and quality control
system for quantifying the magnitude of elbow extension during bowling.
Results: Following testing in three 3D motion analysis facilities, a protocol that integrates the recommendations of the
International Society of Biomechanics, functional methods (Kontaxis et al., 2009), and includes cricket bowling specific
aspects and quality controls, has been produced. It includes a detailed protocol for standardised data collection using a
custom built set of biocompatible marker clusters. A series of static, functional movement and instrument based
calibration tests are included to facilitate data quality control and validation. Customised data processing, results and
quality check modules embedded in the system’s software facilitates automation and reliability of data analysis and
report production. At the time of writing, over 50 trial assessments, across three laboratories have been conducted.
Two formal ICC suspected illegal action assessments have also been undertaken using the new protocol. By the time of
presentation it is envisaged that at least four testing facilities across three continents will have gained ICC accreditation
to perform assessments for bowlers with suspect actions. These centres will work closely with their home and
neighbouring Boards to identify and remediate illegal bowling actions.
Discussion and Conclusions: As no gold standard for the quantification of elbow extension during cricket bowling exists,
it is very difficult to assess the validity of any laboratory based assessment protocol. However, the results produced by
the new system appear to be stable, consistent with the 3D quality check procedures and seem to have face validity
when compared to multiple angle high-speed video. The results also indicate sensitivity in distinguishing actions
reported as illegal, from ‘legal’ looking actions. It is envisaged that a reliable, and as far as is possible to determine,
valid, laboratory based system will be very helpful in identifying bowlers with illegal actions, and providing feedback
during remediation. Development of effective on-field bowling action assessment technology that works in conjunction
with laboratory based testing would greatly augment this process and is currently being pursued by the ICC.
References:
Chin, A., Lloyd, D., Alderson, J., Elliott, B. and Mills, P. (2009). A marker based mean finite helical axis model to
determine location of elbow axes and kinematics in-vivo. In Review, Journal of Biomechanics.
30
Elliott, B.C., Alderson, J.A., Denver, E.R. (2007). System and modelling errors in motion analysis: Implications for the
measurement of the elbow angle in cricket bowling. Journal of Biomechanics, 40, 2679-2685.
Ferdinands, R.E.D. and Kersting, U.W. (2007). An evaluation of biomechanical measures of bowling action legality in
cricket. Sports Biomechanics, 6, 315-333.
Portus, M.R., Rosemond, C.D. and Rath, D.A. (2006). Fast bowling arm actions and the illegal delivery law in men’s high
performance cricket matches. Sports Biomechanics, 5, 215-230.
King, M.A., and Yeadon, M.R. (2012) Quantifying elbow extension and elbow hyperextension in cricket bowling: A case
study of Jenny Gunn. Journal of Sports Sciences
Kontaxis A, Cutti AG, Johnson GR, Veeger HE. A framework for the definition of standardized protocols for measuring
upper-extremity kinematics. Clinical Biomechanics. 2009 Mar;24(3):246-53.
Stokdijk M, Biegstraaten M, Ormel W, de Boer YA, Veeger HE, Rozing PM. Determining the optimal flexion-extension
axis of the elbow in vivo – a study of interobserver and intraobserver reliability. Journal of Biomechanics. 2000
Sep;33(9):1139-45.
31
Oral presentations
The use of small-sided cricket games and the influence of variations to the
playing environment and rules
Theme: Exercise Physiology & Nutrition
Will Vickery1, Ben DASCOMBE1, Rob Duffield2
1 ASSET Laboratory, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science and IT, University
of Newcastle, Ourimbah, NSW, Australia; 2 Sport and Exercise Discipline Group, UTS: Health,
University of Technology Sydney, NSW, Australia
Aims: Small-sided games are a popular training method used to replicate the technical skills, tactical awareness and
physiological demands of a competitive match (Gabbett, Jenkins & Abernathy, 2009). Further, modifying constraints
such as the area of a playing field, player numbers or match rules has been used to alter these demands (Hill-Haas et
al., 2011). The aim of this study was to report on the physical and physiological demands of small-sided cricket games
(Battlezone) in cricket players. Secondly, this study investigated the physiological responses and movement demands
associated with modified versions of Battlezone.
Methods: In the initial study 13 amateur, male cricket players (age: 22.8 ± 3.5 yr, height: 1.78 ± 0.06 m, body mass: 78.6
± 7.1 kg) completed two generic Battlezone sessions, consisting of six repeat 8 over bouts. Heart rate and movement
demands were continuously recorded, whilst blood lactate concentration and perceived exertion were recorded after
each respective bout. Following this, 11 amateur, male cricket players (22.2 ± 3.6 y; 1.80 ± 0.06 m; 81.7 ± 11.4 kg)
volunteered to perform each of four modified 8 over scenarios of Battlezone. Modifications to Battlezone included
reducing the field size, removal of a fielder, a combination of these modifications and additional rule changes with the
same physiological and physical measures recorded.
Results: During the initial generic Battlezone sessions the relative distance covered varied between playing positions
. -1
. -1
(wicketkeepers: 1512 ± 859 m h – batsmen: 3820 ± 583 m h ). Across the playing positions the majority of time (65-1
86%) was spent with a heart rate of between 51-85%HRmax and a blood lactate concentration of 1.1-2.0 mmol·L . Rating
of perceived exertion ranged between 4.2-6.0. An increase in the physical and physiological measures was recorded
when variations were made to the Battlezone playing area and rules. The relative distance covered across playing
. -1
. -1
positions varied (wicketkeepers: 1883 ± 751 m h – medium-fast bowlers: 4414 ± 1391 m h ) with a greater number of
. -1
. -1
high-intensity efforts (156 ± 57 h ) completed compared to the generic sessions (83 ± 37 h ). Specifically, changes to
the Battlezone rules led to a greater physical and physiological response particularly within batsmen (number of high. intensity efforts: 177 ± 44 h 1, work-to-recovery ratio: 12 ± 3 s, RPE: 7.4 ± 1.6) and wicketkeepers (number of high. intensity efforts: 35 ± 17 h 1, work-to-recovery ratio: 55 ± 12 s).
Discussion and Conclusions: Primarily, the main finding of the study was that the intensity and physical demands of
generic Battlezone sessions were of moderate to higher intensities across each playing position when compared to
previous match data (Petersen et al., 2010). Further to this, the results also demonstrated that the physiological and
physical responses to different Battlezone scenarios were affected by specific environmental and rule modifications. In
particular, variations to the Battlezone playing rules appeared to have the greatest influence on increasing physiological
and physical demands. The findings of this study provide evidence for the use of small-sided games for providing a
match-specific training stimulus for cricket players.
References:
Gabbett, T., D. Jenkins, and B. Abernethy, Game-based training for improving skill and physical fitness in team sport
athletes. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 2009. 4(2): p. 273-283.
Hill-Haas, S.V., et al., Physiology of small-sided games training in football: a systematic review. Sports Medicine, 2011.
41(3): p. 199-220.
Petersen, C., et al., Movement patterns in cricket vary by both position and game format. Journal of Sports Science,
2010. 28 (1): p. 1-8.
32
Oral presentations
Cricket and suicide in the nineteenth century
Theme: Novel Case Reports
Greg DE MOORE1
1 Westmead Hospital, University of Western Sydney and University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Aims: To study examples of suicide within mid-late nineteenth-century Australian cricket culture; to determine what
cricket factors were pertinent in the suicides; and whether modern psychiatric diagnoses could be made from historical
files. Once this is done to see whether similar factors might operate in examples of modern cricketers suffering from
mental illness and what further studies might usefully be conducted to explore this in the twenty-first century.
Methods: Psychological autopsies of the deaths of two famous nineteenth-century Australian cricketers were
undertaken. The two cricketers - Tom Wills and Richard Wardill – both committed suicide. The psychological autopsies
explored the methods used in the act of death, the immediate factors that culminated in death and the broader
influence of sport, culture and family. There were three arms in the research: first the examination of medical archives;
second an examination of the broader literature of the time including an extensive review of newspaper reports; third a
description of some of the media reports of perceived mental illness and suicide in modern cricketers.
Results: Tom Wills was the finest all-round Australian cricketer prior to Tests and arguably the most influential
sportsman in Australian history. Richard Wardill was the first batsman to score a century in Australian first-class cricket.
Both men committed suicide in ways that were widely reported in the press of the day. The two case studies reveal
how suicide was regarded in the late nineteenth century. Factors deemed important in the aetiology of suicide in
cricketers included alcohol, moral failings and exposure to harsh environments such as excessive sun. Concepts of
mental illness in the nineteenth century - such as depression - were virtually non-existent. In one case alcohol abuse
and the drinking culture of Australian cricket led directly to suicide; in the other gambling to excess led to suicide. Both
issues remain relevant in the twenty first century. The methods of suicide used and how these methods were perceived
at the time will be reviewed. A lack of understanding of mental illness shaped how commentators and the public
discussed the deaths of such prominent cricketers. Despite the lack of diagnoses at the time, a review of the archives in
both these cases allowed modern psychiatric diagnoses to be confidently made.
Discussion and Conclusions: Psychological autopsies on both players revealed the extent to which factors such as
alcohol, mental illness and cultural factors were understood in cricket suicides. When these two men died their suicides
were explained using a framework of religious, moral and legal beliefs. In contrast, today we see the act of suicide
primarily within a medical framework. These different ways of viewing suicide shape the how such individuals are
regarded after their deaths, and the sporting legacies they leave,
References:
Tom Wills: First Wild Man of Australian Sport (Allen & Unwin), 2011. Greg de Moore
33
Oral presentations
The chucking controversy in cricket
Mandeep S DHILLON1
1 PGIMER, Chandigarh India
In Cricket “chucking” is an illegal bowling action, which has generated huge controversies at the international level in
0
the last 20 years. Chucking happens when a bowler “straightens” his arm at the elbow by more than 15 in the terminal
phase of delivery (between the point when bowling arm passes above shoulder height to point of ball release).
Law 24, Clause 3 defines a fair delivery: the arm must be fully extended (or should not jerk at the elbow by more than
0
15 ) after it reaches the overhead position, as this has the potential to impart more velocity to the ball. The umpire will
call a no ball, and repeat offenders will be asked to stop bowling further and debarred till their action is rectified. This
0
0
law was in force since 1864 when overhead bowling was legalized. Initially the limits were 5 for slow bowlers and 10
for fast bowlers. Muralitharan, the champion Srilankan spinner was called for “chucking” repeatedly in 1995-6, and in
1998, and had to undergo testing at various laboratories in HongKong and Perth. The problem came to the fore again in
the early 2000s when he launched his new delivery the “doosra”, a different ball where the action was modified to
change spin direction; repeated no-balling by umpire Darrel Hair almost created an international incident with the
captain Ranatunga walking out in a Test match!. Murali underwent voluntary testing at various biomechanical Labs,
principally in Perth under Prof Elliott, and was advised some modifications, and declared not be a chucker. By this time
high quality on field cameras had come into play and many bowler actions were under scrutiny by the ICC. Despite
clearance from various specialists, the public perception of Murali as an illegal spinner was propagated by cricketers like
Bedi in India, some politicians in Australia and laypersons with limited understanding. To counter act public opinion, I
advised Murali to wear a fabricated brace to immobilize the elbow, and bowl publically to demonstrate that he does
not jerk the elbow. This was then documented by Chaneel 4 at Lords with 16 cameras, and subsequently as an ESPN
Cricket show by Ravi Shastri, myself and Michael Slater in Colombo, which changed the public perception. Subsequently
Law 24, rule 3 was also redefined (as per recommendations of David Richardson (pending since 2003!) to include all
0
bowlers into one segment, and the limit of elbow motion was changed to a common limit of 15 elbow motion during
the terminal bowling action. Murali then went on to take 400 more test wickets becoming the highest wicket taker of
all time.
34
Oral presentations
Development of a smart cricket ball for advanced performance analysis of
bowling
Theme: New Developments in Cricket Technology
Batdelger DOLJIN1, Franz Konstantin Fuss1
1 School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne,
Australia
Aims: The aim of the project was to develop an instrumented cricket ball for recording the ball’s kinematics and
calculating dynamic performance parameters from kinematic data. A first prototype was built by Fuss and co-workers
(1) and used for analysis of off-spin bowling (2) and seam bowling (3,4). The drawback of the first prototype was that
the ball was machined from Ureal without leather hemispheres, and that the ball had to be opened for downloading
the data via USB cable.
Methods: The second prototype of the smart cricket ball includes three high-speed gyros, microcontroller, battery,
memory, and electronic equipment for wireless data transfer and inductive charging. The ball is operated wirelessly via
laptop or smart phone. The mass of the ball is 160 g and it is fully balanced. The electronics is protected by foam, a
CNC-machined nylon6 shell and the ball is encased by the leather hemispheres of a cricket ball. The data sampling rate
of the ball is 815 Hz. The z-axis of the coordinate system is perpendicular to the seam, and the ball is held such that in
right-/left-handers, the positive/negative z-axis points towards the palm (spin bowling) or the middle finger (fast
bowling). This convention ensures equal kinematics for right- and left-handers with respect to the ball’s coordinate
system. A software package was developed which processes the data, calculates the performance parameters and
graphically displays them.
Results: The results obtained from the smart ball are exemplified for off-spin deliveries. When rotating the arm, the
spin axis vector is still of short length (low spin rate) followed by a rapid increase in spin rate, when torque is imparted
onto the ball. For average release spin rates of 22 rps, the maximal torque is approximately 0.24 Nm. The precession of
the spin axis is generated by the torque, causing the spin axis vector to follow the torque vector. For average release
spin rates of 22 rps, the maximal precession is approximately 35 rps.
Discussion and Conclusions: The smart ball has a number of advantages over motion analyses systems: the ball
kinematics can be determined outdoors, the aerodynamics of the ball is not disturbed by markers, and the ball’s data
are more accurate.
References:
FUSS FK, SMITH RM, SUBIC A. Procedia Engineering 34: 128-133, 2012
FUSS FK, et al. Sports Technology, 4(3–4): 159–163, 2012
FUSS FK, SMITH RM. Procedia Engineering 60: 453–458, 2013
FUSS FK, SMITH RM. Procedia Engineering, 72: 435–440, 2014
35
Oral presentations
Investigating the relationships between technique parameters and ball
release speed in female fast bowling
Theme: Biomechanics of Technique and Performance
Paul FELTON1, Samantha Lister1, Mark King1
1 Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom
Background: Previous research has investigated the influence of different technique parameters on ball release speed
1
in fast bowling primarily using male bowlers. Worthington et al. identified four technique variables as being the best
predictors of ball speed: run-up, front knee at ball release, shoulder angle at front foot contact, and thoracic flexion
from front foot flat until ball release. Unfortunately, little is known on the best predictors of ball release speed in
female fast bowlers.
Aims: To investigate the relationships between female fast bowling technique and ball release speed.
Methods: Eighteen elite female fast bowlers each bowled six maximum ball speed deliveries of a good length in an
indoor practice facility. An 18 camera Vicon Motion Analysis system was used to collect three dimensional kinematic
data. Forty-seven 14 mm retro-reflective markers were attached to the subject and an additional marker was attached
to the ball in order to calculate ball speed. All marker trajectories were filtered using a fourth-order low pass
Butterworth filter with a cut-off frequency of 30 Hz. The best three trials were averaged and eleven kinematic
parameters were determined for each trial. The effect of interactions between the fast bowling technique parameters
and ball release speed were investigated using stepwise linear regression with the requirement for the inclusion of a
variable being P < 0.10.
Results: Good between-trial repeatability was found for all the technique parameters, where the within-subject sum of
squares for the eleven individually calculated parameters ranged from 1 – 10% (mean 5%) of the between-subject sum
of squares. Consequently, the three trials were averaged for each parameter to provide representative data for each
bowler. The highest percentage of variation in ball release speed was explained using three technique variables: run-up
speed, knee angle at ball release and shoulder angle at front foot contact, explaining 74.1% of the observed variation in
ball release speed. The fastest bowlers had a faster run-up, greater flexion of the knee at ball release and an earlier
onset of upper arm circumduction.
Discussion and Conclusions: The results of this investigation suggest the variation in ball speed observed among the
elite female fast bowlers can be explained well using three technique parameters: run-up speed, knee angle at ball
release and shoulder angle at front foot contact (74.1% of the variation). These three parameters were also found to be
1
included within the best predictors of ball release speed in the study by Worthington et al. . The predictive equations in
both studies suggest that an increase in run-up speed is associated with an increase in ball release speed. Worthington
1
et al. however, found that a delay to the onset of arm circumduction and a straighter front knee at ball release were
related with faster ball release speeds rather than the opposite found in this study. It is proposed that this difference is
caused by the differential in strength and technique between male and female bowlers, which caused the front knee to
collapse in the majority of the female fast bowlers used within this study.
References:
Worthington, P.J., King, M.A., & Ranson, C.A. JAB, 29(1), 78-84.
36
Oral presentations
Case study: Biomechanical remediation of an illegal spin bowling action
Theme: Biomechanics of Technique and Performance
René E.D FERDINANDS1, Aaron Beach1
1 Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Introduction: The ICC regulations impose a 15-degree limit on elbow extension from the position of bowling upper arm
horizontal to ball release [1]. Each season, umpires report a number of bowlers, particularly finger-spin bowlers, for
suspect actions if they appear to violate this legal constraint. The official assessment of bowling legality must be done in
the biomechanics laboratory. Transgression of the extension limit generally results in a suspension from the game, and
a return to competition only permitted after the bowler can demonstrate a legal bowling action in the laboratory.
Currently, there is no formal coaching protocol to remediate suspect bowling actions. In this case study, we report on
the successful remediation of an illegal finger-spin bowling action.
Methods: A young male finger-spin bowler from South Africa (15 years) with a suspect bowling action was tested in the
laboratory. He bowled within the capture area of a 14-camera 240 Hz motion analysis system (Motion Analysis Corp.) to
track 53 markers, delivering 40 balls at a target 20 m away, while two Kistler force plates (1000 Hz) measured ground
reaction forces. All markers were strategically arranged to express the kinematic data in terms of segmental joint
coordinate systems [2]. The markers on the bowling arm satisfied the protocol established by the ICC to determine
bowling legality [3]. Anatomical measurements of his bowling arm were taken to determine to detect any elbow
abnormalities. If his elbow extension exceeded 15°, then technical intervention would be followed by re-testing.
Results:: The subject had a fixed elbow flexion angle of 17° and carry angle of 18°. In the first testing session, the mean
elbow extension angle and spin rate for the following deliveries were recorded: off-spinner, 28.5 ± 3.6°, 22.9 ± 0.8
rev/s; top-spinner, 32.6 ± 4.3°; 26.2 ± 2.3 rev/s; doosra, 29.2 ± 4.3°, 26.6 ± 3.4 rev/s; leg-spinner, 2.8 ± 0.7°, 22.3 ± 1.2
rev/s. After a technical intervention program that included an inertial extension of the bowling elbow, and inhibition
of rear knee drive, the elbow extension and spin rate were 8.9 ± 4.7°, and 25.6 ± 2.1, rev/s, respectively. After a final
session of technical intervention, the following data were recorded (mean elbow extension, spin rate): off-spinner, 6.5
± 1.6°, 20.8 ± 2.0 rev/s; top-spinner, 5.9 ± 1.7°; 21.6 ± 1.7 rev/s; back-spin leg-spinner, 1.7 ± 1.2°, 21.5 ± 1.4 rev/s; legspinner, 1.7 ± 1.3°, 23.0 ± 1.6 rev/s. The back-spin delivery replaced the doosra delivery.
Discussion and Conclusions: This case study documents the successful remediation of a finger-spin bowler with fixed
elbow flexion and carry angle abnormalities who significantly exceeded the 15° elbow extension limit. The spin bowler
successfully implemented the coaching interventions to reduce his elbow extension angle by more than 20° without
registering a significant loss in spin rate. Also, the coaching interventions used here may be applicable more generally,
to alter the elbow angle kinematics of other bowlers who present with illegal bowling actions. It is proposed that
biomechanical feedback is essential in this coaching process. More bowlers with suspect actions will be recruited to test
the general validity of this approach.
References:
International Cricket Council (2005). ICC regulations for the review of bowlers, 207–20.
Grood, ES, Suntay, WJ (1983) Journal of Biomechanics, 105, 136-144.
Lloyd, DG, Alderson, J, Elliott, BC (2000) Journal of Sports Science,18, 975-982..
37
Oral presentations
A new classification of spin bowling deliveries based on kinematic and
dynamic parameters
Theme: Biomechanics of Technique and Performance
René E.D Ferdinands1, Franz Konstantin Fuss2, Aaron Beach1, Batdelger Doljin2
1 Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
2 Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia
Aims: The taxonomic differentiation between spin bowling deliveries is based chiefly on player impressions and
assumptions and not on a proper science using advanced measurement technology. For instance, Woolmer and Noakes
(1) and Wilkins (2) adopted the traditional classification, by mainly distinguishing between finger- and wrist-spin
deliveries, even though the fingers and wrist are utilized in all spin bowling deliveries. Furthermore, there remains
confusion on how to classify certain deliveries, such as the flipper, backspinner and doosra In particular, the
classification of a Doosra as a hybrid between finger- and wrist-spin [1], and the flipper as a wrist-spin delivery [1,2]
requires further investigation. This paper gives an overview of initial results from the Spin Bowling Classification Project,
a two-pronged approach using both a motion analysis system and the RMIT SMART instrumented cricket ball to
develop a comprehensive biomechanical classification of spin bowling deliveries.
Methods: Based on previous work by Fuss and Ferdinands, (3) kinematic (motion analysis system and SMART cricket
ball) and dynamic parameters (SMART cricket ball) were collected from an ex-first class bowler who could bowl a
comprehensive range of finger- and wrist-spin deliveries.. Rather than assuming clear differences, a continuum
approach was chosen which highlights both similarities and differences between deliveries, providing a functional
approach for devising an eventual classification tree of spin bowling. This unique approach presented in terms of
several 2D graphs, by plotting three classification parameters against each other: path of spin axis, peak torque(s) and
peak precession speed(s).
Results: The continuum of finger-spin deliveries was apparent from the direction of the spin axis at release, and from
the precession speeds of the spin axis a torque was applied to the ball. The magnitude of the torque could not directly
serve for classification purposes, since it was closely linked to the spin rate. Wrist-spin deliveries were characterized by
two precession and torque spikes in contrast to finger-spin which had only one. The continuum between wrist-spin
deliveries was apparent as well, specifically when plotting the precession speeds of first and second spike against each
other.
Discussion and Conclusions: Although this was a preliminary attempt to classify spin deliveries using a novel method,
the continuum classification approach was verified. The data suggests that finger- and wrist-spin deliveries can be
treated as separate deliveries. However, within these delivery types, the spin directions (back, side, top) should be
regarded as a functional continuum. In addition, the flipper is incorrectly conceptualized as a wrist spin delivery, as it is
in reality, based on both the kinematic and dynamic data, a finger-spin delivery. By correctly treating spin direction as a
functional continuum, instead of a delivery type, the classification of spin bowling deliveries is simplified, assisting
coaches to instruct spin bowlers with more direct functional feedback. The trajectory of the spin torque vector also
reveals some insight into the finger mechanics associated with spin delivery types and directions, a further aid for spin
bowlers wanting to increase their variety of deliveries.
References:
Woolmer, B, Noakes, T (2008). Bob Woolmer’s Art and Science of Cricket. London: New Holland Publishers
Wilkins, B (1992) The Bowler's Art: Understanding Spin, Swing and Swerve. A & C Black Publishers
Fuss, F, Ferdinands, RED, Batdelger, D, Beach D (2015) Kinematics and dynamics of spin bowling measured with a smart
cricket ball, WCSMC 2015 conference paper
38
Oral presentations
The impact of injury and injury risk perceptions on participation in junior
community cricket in Australia
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
Emma J Siesmaa1,2, Peta E White2, Jennifer D Blitvich1, Caroline F FINCH2
1 School of Health Sciences, Federation University Australia, Ballarat, Australia
2 Australian Centre for Research into Injury in Sport and its Prevention (ACRISP), Federation
University Australia, Ballarat, Australia
Aims: Very little is known about factors that impact children’s sport participation in Australia, including their
participation in cricket. More specifically, the impact of injury or the risk of injury on participation has never been
investigated in the context of a popular Australian sport like cricket. This study explored the impact of injury and injury
risk perceptions on children’s participation in community level cricket. It focussed on Australian children currently
involved in cricket, playing at community club level.
Methods: A total of 284 Australian junior cricketers (predominantly male, aged 9-16 years) from a community cricket
association in regional Victoria completed a validated self-report survey (Siesmaa, et al., 2011) during a scheduled
training session. Information about injuries children sustained, their injury risk perceptions and perceptions about
cricket safety was collected.
Results: Among all surveyed players, 58 (26%) self-reported sustaining an injury while playing cricket during the
previous 12-months. As an indication of severity, almost 30% of these injured players had to stop playing at the time of
the injury and/or spent time out of the sport after the injury occurred (defined as at least one match or training
session) and 37% of the injured players had received medical treatment for their injury. Very few cricketers reported
that either themselves (4%) or their parents (4%) had been discouraged from them continuing to play cricket after they
sustained an injury. Most of the surveyed junior cricketers (96%) perceived there to be some injury risk while playing
cricket. Conversely, when asked to rank the risk of cricket compared with other popular sports played by Australian
th
children, according to Australian Bureau of Statistics, they ranked cricket as having a relatively low injury risk (ranked 7
out of 10 sports listed in the survey). Overall, 19% of the surveyed cricketers reported being told by someone else that
cricket was dangerous; 16% recalled feeling unsafe while playing cricket at some point; and approximately three
quarters of cricketers reported that they would still feel safe while playing cricket even if one of their friends and/or a
famous player (e.g. Ricky Ponting) sustained an injury.
Discussion and Conclusions: This study is the first of its kind to examine whether injury related factors influenced
children’s participation in cricket. Despite more than a quarter of study participants reporting having sustained an
injury whilst active in cricket, very few reported being put off the sport as a result. Furthermore, children’s injury risk
perceptions indicated that they perceived cricket to be a relatively safe sport even in light of the fact that injuries can
happen. It would appear that cricket is considered a safe sport in which children can be engaged. Cricket sporting
bodies can use these findings to promote the sport at community level in order encourage children to become actively
involved. Thus, increasing their engagement in sports can promote greater health among Australian children.
References:
Siesmaa, E.J., Blitvich, J.D., White, P.E., & Finch, C.F. (2011). Measuring children’s self-reported sport participation, risk
perception and injury history: Development and validation of a survey instrument. Journal of Science and Medicine in
Sport, 14, 22-26.
39
Oral presentations
Participation habits in junior level community cricket players
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
Scott Talpey1, Emma Siesmaa1,2, Peta White1, Caroline F FINCH1
1 Australian Centre for Research into Injury in Sport and its Prevention, Federation University,
Ballarat, Australia
2 School of Health Sciences, Federation University Australia, Ballarat, Australia
Aims: Participation in junior cricket provides young athletes with opportunities to develop physically and socially.
However, how much cricket junior participants are playing in a week, and in what contexts they most commonly
compete, is not yet understood. Therefore, this investigation sought to answer two specific questions related to junior
cricket participation. Firstly, how much training and competition do junior cricketers undertake in a week? Secondly, in
what contexts do junior cricketers most commonly compete? This information can be used by junior cricket clubs and
coaches to enhance the long-term development of cricket participants.
Methods: Data were collected as part of the Juniors Enjoying Cricket Safely (JECS) study, conducted in a large Victorian
regional cricket association. Overall, 284 players, grouped by their major team of registration, from nine under 12 years
(U12) (n=57 players), 19 U14 (n=140) and12 U16 (n= 84) teams completed a cricket-specific self-report survey at the
beginning of the season. Chi-squared analysis was used to determine associations between age group, participation in
the two weeks prior to the survey.
Results: Survey respondents were aged between 9-16 years (mean 12.7 years), and 98.2% were male. The majority of
the surveyed cricketers participated in ≥1 match the previous week, with, 10% of survey respondents reported having
participated in > two matches during the previous week. Among those who competed in > 2 matches a week,
significantly more of them (p< 0.001) were U16 players than U12 and U14 players. Coinciding with the greater number
of weekly participations in the older age group, 49.4% (CI: 38.8-60.0) of U16 players reported also taking part in > 2
training sessions in the previous week. Additionally, overall, significantly (p < 0.05) more under 12 players 46% (CI: 31.657.6) reported not attending any cricket training in the previous week, than did under 14 (7.1%) and under 16 (7.2%)
players. Moreover, 28% of U16 players reported also competing in the older U19 competition the week before,
however no players from the U12 and U14 reported playing in the older age group.
Discussion and Conclusions: As a junior cricketer’s age increases, there is an increase in the amount of training and
competitive opportunities in which they are exposed. Additionally, in the U16 age group, 28% of participants reported
to have participated in a senior U19 competition in addition to their U16 game. To optimise skill development, as more
opportunities for training and competing are presented to junior cricketers, it is vital that coaches ensure junior cricket
players are physically and mentally prepared to compete with and against older athletes. Additionally, if U16 players
are participating in > 1 competition in a week adequate rest and recovery should be provided between games to
minimize the risk of injury. To improve training attendance in the younger age groups it is recommended that coaches
foster a fun and engaging environment with sufficient opportunities to develop cricket skills such as batting and
bowling.
40
Oral presentations
The incidence of injury in Australian community level cricket players: A
national overview of insurance claims from 2004-2013
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
Corey Joseph1, Caroline F FINCH1
1 Australian Centre for Research into Injury in Sport and its Prevention, Federation University,
Ballarat, Australia
Background: There are limited epidemiological studies exploring injuries in cricketers when compared to other sports,
such as Australian Football. Almost all of the evidence about cricket injuries and their associated factors relates to elite
cricketers. Understanding injury is of particular importance at the community-level given the potential for a high public
health burden of injuries. However, there are very few databases that can be used for this purpose. The aim of this
study is to summarise injuries resulting in insurance claims for injuries that occurred during participation in communitylevel cricket across Australia over a 10 year period.
Methods: 4183 de-identified insurance claims were obtained from a national sports insurance provider (JLT Sport).
st
st
These insurance claims were for injuries that occurred to players only between January 1 2004 – 31 December 2013,
and do not include injuries that occurred during non-playing/training situations, or to volunteers/officials. Data on the
following items were extracted from claimant forms: injury year, association, club, team grade (e.g. junior vs. senior),
sex, accident date, injury session (e.g. playing, training, etc.), player position at time of injury (e.g. batting, bowling,
fielding), surface, anatomical location, type of injury, accident location, month, age, and weather. Annual injury rates
were computed from the number of claims divided by the number of cricketers based on national cricket participation
figures from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. The results below present data and average annual rates for claimants
aged 15 years and over.
Results: The average annual injury insurance claim rate was 147 claims per 100,000 participants/year. Fielding was
associated with the most injury claims with 57 per 100,000 participants/year (n=160), followed by batting (43 claims
per 100,000 participants/year; n=121) and bowling (28 claims per 100,000 participants/year; n=79). The majority of
injury claims were by males (140 claims per 100,000 male participants/year; n=375; 98% of claims), compared to
females (67 per 100,000 female participants/year; n=9; 2% of claims), and at senior level cricket (168 claims per
100,000 participants/year; n=366; 95% of claims), compared to junior (31 claims per 100,000 participants/year; n=19;
5% of claims). The most common anatomical injury location was the knee (28 claims per 100,000 participants/year;
n=80), followed by fingers/thumb (20 claims per 100,000 participants/year; n=56). Fractures were the most common
injury type (35 claims per 100,000 participants/year; n=100), followed by ligament sprains (26 claims per 100,000
participants/year; n=72). There was on average 1 claim for concussion per year (0.4 claims per 100,000
participants/year), and on average 2 claims for death each year (0.3 claims per 100,000 participants/year; 78% cardiac
event, 11% lightning strike, 11% unspecified).
Discussion and Conclusions: This is the first study to report community-level insurance claims for injury in cricket. Most
injury claims occurred during fielding, at senior level competition, and in males. Further, most claims were for
fractures, and the most common bodily location was the knee. Injury prevention programs should target players across
all positions, especially fielding.
41
Oral presentations
Sport-specific factors predicting player retention in junior cricket - results
from a logistic regression model
Theme: Statistical Approaches In Cricket
Caroline FINCH1, Scott Talpey1, Ahmed Bani-Mustafa2, Emma Siesmaa1
1 Australian Centre for Research into Injury in Sport and its Prevention, Federation University
Australia, Ballarat, Australia
2 School of Engineering, American University of the Middle East, Kuwait
Aims: Little is known about what factors influence children’s continued participation in cricket. This study aimed to
identify the factors predicting the retention of junior cricketers (aged <16 years) in a large Australian community junior
cricket association over a 7-year period (2002/3-2008/9).
Methods: Data on junior player retention across successive playing seasons was routinely collected during annual
registration. At season commencement, player status was categorised as: 1) too old to return to junior cricket; 2)
remaining in the association and playing this season; or 3) departing from the association for non-age restriction
reasons. Those categorised as 1) were removed from further analysis. The status variable (2 vs. 3) was then linked to
performance and participation data from the previous season: player age; number of seasons played previously; batting
and bowling participations; batting and bowling performance; team performance; and team details e.g. grade of play
and numbers of players available. Logistic regression analysis, using status (retained=2 vs. not retained=3) as the binary
dependent variable, was undertaken to determine the independent predictors of play retention.
Results: Seven variables accounted for 28.3% of the variation in retention status, providing a good predictive model for
player retention. The two most important predictors of retention were a player’s age and playing history. In terms of
player involvement, the most important factor was how many batting innings they had completed in the preceding
season. Player performance in terms of batting and bowling in the previous season also predicted their retention into
the next season. Finally, the relative ranking of the team’s performance in its grade was also important.
Discussion and Conclusions: This study has identified key sport-specific factors that predict children’s retention within
an Australian community junior cricket setting. Individual player factors included age, playing history, number of innings
batted and both batting/bowling performance. This is consistent with an early study [1] that found that children were
more likely to maintain cricket involvement when given adequate opportunity to both participate and succeed,
Moreover, children who participate at a higher level are more likely to maintain involvement, as those with greater skill
leading to greater contributions to the game would more likely be high level participants. External factors such as the
team age/grade and its relative performance ranking also impact on junior player retention. These findings are
consistent with a recent review [2] that found enjoyment, social interaction, skill improvements, a sense of challenge
and actual sporting success all contribute to children’s continued sport involvement.
References:
Spink KS, Longhurst K. (1990). Participation motives of Australian boys involved in traditional and modified cricket. Aust
J Sci Med Sport, 22 (1), 28-32.
Siesmaa EJ, Blitvich JD, Telford A, Finch CF. (2011). Factors that are most influential in children’s continued and
discontinued participation in organised sport: The role of injury and injury risk perceptions. In A.D. Farelli (Ed.), Sport
participation: Health benefits, injuries and psychological effects. pp. 47-84. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers,
Inc.
42
Oral presentations
Strength correlates of throwing velocity in sub-elite male cricket players
Theme: Strength & Conditioning
Jonathan FREESTON1, Tom Carter1, Gary Whitaker1, Kieron Rooney1
1 The University of Sydney, NSW, Australia
Aims: To determine the relationship between strength and throwing velocity in cricket players.
Methods: Seventeen male cricket players (mean ± SD; age, 21.1 ± 1.6 years; height, 1.79 ± 0.06 m; weight, 79.8 ± 6.4
kg) from the elite athlete program at the Sydney University Cricket Club were tested for maximal throwing velocity
(MTV) from the stretch and following a 3 m shuffle. They were also assessed for strength using a range of different
measures.
-1
Results: Throwing velocity from the stretch (30.5 ± 2.4 m.s ) was significantly related to dominant leg lateral to medial
jump (LMJ) distance (r = 0.71, p < 0.01), dominant shoulder internal rotation (IR) strength (r = 0.55, p < 0.05), dominant
(r = 0.73, p < 0.01) and non-dominant (r = 0.54, p < 0.05) medicine ball rotation (MB Rot) throw velocity and medicine
ball chest pass (MB CP) distance (r = 0.67, p < 0.01). A non-significant trend was observed for vertical jump (VJ) height
(p = 0.06), while no significant relationships were observed for non-dominant LMJ distance (p = 0.97), non-dominant
shoulder IR strength (p = 0.80), beep test score (p = 0.52), 1 Repetition Maximum (RM) squat strength (p = 0.57), 1RM
bench press strength (p = 0.90), Chin-up RM (p = 0.83), height (p = 0.33) or weight (p = 0.29). Multiple regression
analysis revealed dominant MB Rot and MB CP explained 66% of the variance with the following model: Y = 11.76 + (MB
2
Rot x 0.459) + (MB CP x 1.843) where the adjusted R was 0.66 and standard error of the estimate (SEE) was 1.38. The
-1
results were similar for velocity following a shuffle step (31.8 ± 2.1 m.s ) however; VJ height reached statistical
significance (r = 0.51, p < 0.05). The multiple regression was also similar with MB Rot and MB CP explaining 70% of the
2
variance: Y = 14.5 + (MB Rot x 0.428) + (MB CP x 1.645); R = 0.70, SEE = 1.15.
Discussion and Conclusions: The cricketers in the current study threw with greater velocity than elite junior, and subelite senior cricketers but with lower velocities than elite senior cricketers and collegiate level and professional baseball
players (Freeston et al., 2007). This is the first study to demonstrate a link between strength and throwing velocity in
cricket players. Exercises that more closely simulated the speed (body weight jumps and medicine ball throws) or
movement pattern (shoulder internal rotation) of overhead throwing were greater predictors of throwing velocity.
Strength and conditioning staff should assess and develop power (strength with speed) to monitor and improve
throwing performance in cricket players. Low speed, high load (1RM) testing and training have reduced ecological
validity for throwing performance in athletes from this sport. Cricket players should adopt similar strength training
practices to that of baseball players in order to bridge the current gap in throwing performance capability.
References:
Freeston, J., Ferdinands, R., and Rooney, K. (2007). European Journal of Sport Science. December 2007; 7(4): 231-237.
43
Oral presentations
Kinematics and dynamics of spin bowling measured with a smart cricket
ball
Theme: New Developments In Cricket Technology
Franz Konstantin FUSS1, René E.D Ferdinands2, Batdelger Doljin1, Aaron Beach2
1 School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne,
Australia
2 Discipline of Exercise and Sports Science, Sydney University, Sydney, Australia
Aims: The aim of this project was to map spin bowling deliveries kinematically (position and progression of the spin axis
vector; magnitude of the spin rate) and dynamically (torque and precession) in order to understand the similarities and
differences of individual deliveries. The finger torque imparted onto the ball not only increases the spin rate, but also
causes the spin axis vector to move towards the torque vector. This movement is called precession, which becomes
larger in the following cases: the larger the angle between spin axis and torque vector; the larger the magnitude of the
torque; and the smaller the spin rate and the smaller the moment of inertia of the spinning object.
Methods: The smart cricket ball was equipped with three reflective markers, enabling the ball data to be compared
with Cortex motion analysis data (200 Hz). The following deliveries were recorded with the smart RMIT cricket ball: topspin TS, top/side-spin TSS, side-spin SS, back/side-spin BSS, and back-spin BS, for both finger- and wrist-spin, as well as
doosra DO, googly GO and flipper FL. All deliveries were bowled by an ex-first class spin bowler, who is also a
professional bowling coach. The data for comparison of the 13 deliveries comprised of maximal spin rate at release,
maximal torque and precession (one or two spikes, depending on the delivery); and path of the spin axis vector, torque
vector and precession vector in terms of Euler angles [1].
Results: The main differences between finger- and wrist spin deliveries were that 1) the spin axis at release was
negative in finger-spin and positive in wrist-spin; and in finger spin, the torque and precession had a single peak, in
contrast to wrist spin, which had a double peak. In finger-spin, kinematically, there was very little difference between
TSS, SS and BSS and the spin axis path was more vertical (pitch angle); whereas in TS and BS, the spin axis path was
more oblique (pitch and yaw). The difference between BS and FL, and between TS and DO was that, although their spin
axis paths were similar, they were apart by approximately 60 degrees in yaw direction and 20 degrees in pitch direction,
respectively. Dynamically, the precession speed increased gradually from TS and DO (no dynamic difference) to TSS, SS,
BSS, BS and FL. TS and DO had smaller torques compared to the other deliveries. In wrist spin, kinematically, the spin
axis path moved gradually from GO over TS, TSS, SS, BSS to BS in positive pitch direction. Dynamically, for the first
precession spikes, the precession speed dropped from GO over TS to TSS and then increased to SS, BSS and BS. In the
second precession spike, precession speed increased gradually from TS over TSS, SS, BSS to BS and GO (expected to
have a precession speed as low as TS).
Discussion and Conclusions: The output from the smart cricket ball could be used to distinguish between complex spin
bowling variations, and provide an insight into their corresponding finger mechanics.
References:
FUSS FK, et al. Sports Technology, 4(3–4): 159–163, 2012
44
Oral presentations
Detection of illegal bowling actions with a smart cricket ball
Theme: New Developments In Cricket Technology
Franz Konstantin FUSS1, René E.D Ferdinands2, Aaron Beach2 , Batdelger Doljin1
1 School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne,
Australia
2 Discipline of Exercise and Sports Science, Sydney University, Sydney, Australia
Aims: A major limitation of determining bowling legality in cricket is its dependence on laboratory testing. The aim of
this project was to analyse kinematic and dynamic (torque and precession) differences between legal and illegal offspin deliveries with the RMIT smart cricket ball in order to develop a method of detecting an illegal throwing-type
action in a normal outdoor practice setting.
Methods: An ex-first class spin bowler, with reflective markers attached to the bowling arm for tracking [1] by a Cortex
Motion Analysis System (240 Hz), delivered 13 legal and 7 illegal deliveries with the smart cricket ball. Ethics approval
was granted by RMIT University. Each ball was analysed in terms of maximal spin rate at release, maximal torque and
precession (one or two spikes, depending on the delivery); and path of the spin axis vector, torque vector and
precession vector in terms of Euler angles, obtained from the smart cricket ball, as well as the elbow flexion-extension
angle of the bowler obtained from the motion analysis system.
Results: The spin rate at release was higher in the illegal deliveries than the legal ones. Kinematically, the spin axis path
of illegal deliveries did not match the path of legal ones and had a rapid movement of the spin axis vector (precession).
Dynamically, this rapid movement before imparting the torque onto the ball in illegal deliveries was reflected in a high
precession spike. This unusual spike was higher than the precession caused by the finger torque. In order to quantify
the illegal action, two precession ratios were calculated via integration: 1) average precession across a 0.04 s window,
from 0.02 s before and 0.02 s after the torque peak, divided by the average precession across a 0.07 s window from
0.02 s before the torque peak to 0.09 before the torque peak; 2) average precession across a 0.06 s window, from 0.04
s before and 0.02 s after the torque peak, divided by the average precession across a 0.04 s window from 0.04 s before
the torque peak to 0.09 before the torque peak. Ratios of smaller than 0.5 and 1.6 of first and second ratios,
respectively, indicated illegal action.
Discussion and Conclusions: This research project is a novel attempt to identify the illegal bowling action in an
ecologically valid setting, as opposed to the laboratory. Wixted and co-workers [2] used wearable gyroscopic sensors
for the same purpose, by assessing the difference in fore- and upper arm angular velocities. The current project
presented in this paper, considering its preliminary nature, is limited by the number of bowlers and deliveries analysed
(one each). In future studies, these numbers will be increased to more bowlers and deliveries. The SMART cricket ball is
a potential tool for detecting illegal action, not so much in competition, but during training sessions to remediate
suspect bowling actions.
References:
Elliott, BC, Alderson, JA, Denver, ER (2007) Journal of Biomechanics 40, 2679–2685
Wixted A et al. (2011) Sports Technology, 4:3-4, 134-140
45
Oral presentations
Effect of sleeper's stretch on internal rotation and horizontal adduction
range of motion in elite male cricket bowers
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
Hrunda GADKAR1
1 Srinivas College of Physiotherapy and Research Center, Karnataka, India
Background and Objective: Glenohumeral Internal Rotation Deficit and posterior shoulder tightness are interrelated
(1), and well documented in sports where athletes perform overhead arm motions, such as bowling and throwing. The
condition is empirically linked to superior labrum anterior and posterior (SLAP) lesions, internal impingement
syndrome and shoulder dislocation, Stretching is often used to restore flexibility in athletes after such injuries {2)..
Many studies have been reported to evaluate the acute effects of sleeper stretch in baseball pitchers and tennis
players,[3] but none have reported the effects of sleeper stretch in cricket players.. The present study is to examine the
effects of sleeper stretch on gleno-humeral internal rotation and horizontal adduction range of motion in male elite
cricket bowlers.
Methodolodology: 43 elite male cricket bowlers of mean age (19.13 ± 2.05), were recruited from Hyderabad and
Mangalore). Measurement of the baseline data which included shoulder internal rotation and horizontal adduction
range of motion was measured for all the participants. The affected side shoulder was given sleeper stretch and again
measured for the glenohumeral internal rotation and horizontal adduction on the first day of stretching program using
mechanical inclinometer. Then sleeper stretch was given to the affected shoulder of all the participants on alternate
days thrice in a week for consecutive 3 weeks. Glenohumeral internal rotation and horizontal adduction ROM was
measured before and after the stretch on the last session of each week.
Results: The initial effects of sleeper stretch were insignificant for glenohumeral internal rotation ROM (p= 0.319), but
significant for horizontal adduction ROM (P< 0.001). On overall comparison of Internal rotation and Horizontal
st
nd
rd
adduction ROM between baseline, 1 week, 2 week and 3 week were ( F Value =0.517; P level <0.001) and (P
value <= .000; F Value = .688) respectively. Found both IR and horizontal adduction ROM were highly significant
between all the levels.
Conclusions: Sleeper stretch was effective in increasing glenohumeral internal rotation and horizontal adduction ROM
in elite male cricket bowlers. Study should also be done using female subjects; Sleeper stretch can be compared with
other type of posterior shoulder stretching techniques .and Randomized controlled trials should be done to prove the
efficiency further.
Key words: elite male bowlers, posterior shoulder tightness, GIRD, sleeper stretch
References:
Jin-jenq Lin, Jing-Lan Yang. Reliability and Validity of Shoulder Tightness Measurement in Patients with Stiff Shoulder.
Manual Therapy Journal. 2006(11):146-152.
Corrao,Melissa, Kolber, Morey J, Stanley H. Posterior Shoulder Tightness. Strength and Conditioning
Journal.2009;31(6):61-65.
Kevin Gipes; James T. Wilson. The Acute Effects of Sleeper Stretches on Shoulder Range of Motion. Journal of Athletic
Training 2008, 43 (4): 359
46
Oral presentations
Effects of exercise induced hypo-hydration on sport specific skill
performance among cricketers playing in hot and humid conditions
Theme: Exercise Physiology & Nutrition
Janaka P GAMAGE1, Angela P De Silva2, Arjan K Nalliah3, Stuart D.R. Galloway4
1 Swan District Health Services, WA, Australia
2 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka
3 Department of Coaching, Max Cricket Academy, Sri Lanka Cricket, Sri Lanka
4 School of Sport, University of Stirling, Scotland
Aims: Dehydration can compromise athlete’s performance but effects on skill among cricketers have only been studied
in bowlers (Devlin et al. 2001). The present study aimed to assess the effects of dehydration on cricket specific motor
skill performance among fast-bowlers, fielders, and batsmen playing in hot and humid environments.
Methods: 10 fast-bowlers, 12 fielders and 8 batsmen from the Sri Lankan national training squad took part in the study.
The study was conducted as two outdoor field trials: euhydration trial (EUH, training with fluid provision) and
dehydration trial (DEH, training with fluid restriction). Trials were conducted 7 days apart with prior diet and activity
control. Each trial consisted of a 2-hour training session with pre-training and post-training skill performance
assessments. Pre-trial and post-trial body mass was assessed and percentage body mass loss calculated. Fast-bowlers
each performed 18 deliveries for bowling speed and accuracy measurement. Bowling accuracy was determined from
bowling line (score 0-100) and bowling length (score 1-3). Fielding performance was measured from throwing speed
and accuracy (score 0-5) for each of 8 throws performed underarm, sidearm and overarm, 24 throws in total). Batsmen
performed timed running drills between wickets. Time taken to complete 4 sets of single runs, two runs and three runs
was recorded. Performance scores for all tests were compared pre- to post-training in each trial and significance level
was taken at p<0.05.
0
0
Results: Mean±SD temperature and humidity was 30.8±2.1 C and 76±9% for the EUH trials and 30.1±2.1 C and 77±8%
for the DEH trials, respectively. Mass loss (percentage mass loss) of the athletes was 0.6±0.3kg (0.9+0.5%) in EUH, and
2.6±0.5kg (3.7+0.8%) in DEH trials. Maintaining EUH did not cause a significant change for any of the skill performance
tests pre- to post-training. However, DEH induced a significant 19.8+17.3% reduction in score for bowling line between
pre- (34+4) and post-training (27+6), p<0.05. There was no difference in bowling length or bowling speed with DEH. In
the DEH trial there was a reduction in throwing speed for overarm (6.6+4.1%; p<0.01) and sidearm (4.1+2.3%; p<0.01)
techniques. Similarly, throwing accuracy scores revealed a 14.2+16.3% (p<0.01) and 22.3+13.3% (p<0.05) reduction in
overarm and sidearm accuracy, respectively, but no significant difference for underarm throwing speed or accuracy on
the DEH trial (p>0.05). There was no significant difference with DEH in the time taken to complete single runs, two runs
or three runs (p>0.05), however, athletes were slower post-training (10.51+0.21 sec) in completing three runs
compared to pre-training (10.29+0.19 sec) , p>0.05).
Discussion and Conclusions: This study has revealed significant DEH induced performance declines for bowling
accuracy among fast bowlers, in sidearm and overarm throwing speed and accuracy among fielders. Moderate-severe
dehydration of 3.7% body mass loss in a 2hr training session significantly impairs motor skill performance among
cricketers playing in hot and humid conditions. Fluid ingestion strategies to maintain mass loss within 1% should be
adopted to prevent declines in skill performance of cricketers.
References:
Devlin L.H., Fraser, S. F., Barras, M. S. and Hawley, J. A. Moderate levels of hypohydration impair bowling accuracy but
not bowling velocity in skilled cricket players. J Sci Med Sport 2001; 4: 179-187
47
Oral presentations
The relationship of finger-hand-wrist dimensions and anthropometry on
wrist joint active range of motion among spin and fast bowlers
Theme: Biomechanics of Technique and Performance
Janaka P GAMAGE1, Daminda K Attanayake2, Sanjeewa Kas2, Arjan K Nalliah3
1 Swan District Health Services, WA, Australia
2 Institute of Sports Medicine, Ministry of Sports, Sri Lanka
3 Department of Coaching, Max Cricket Academy, Sri Lanka Cricket, Sri Lanka
Aims: Wrist joint motion is an essential component of both spin and fast bowling technique. Among spinners, wrist
movements potentially affect the spin rate and ball release. Hand and finger anthropometry significantly associate with
hand grip strength among athletes, but association with wrist joint motion is not known [1]. Therefore, aim of this study
was to identify a possible relationship of hand and finger anthropometry on wrist joint range of movement (ROM)
among spin blowers compared to a group of fast bowlers.
Methods: 8 finger spin bowlers and 8 fast bowlers (age = 23.3±2.6 years) from the Sri Lankan national squad took part
in this study. Hand width (HW) and wrist width (WW) measured using a vernier caliper and recorded to the nearest
millimeter. Hand Length (HL), palm length (PL) and wrist circumference (WC) were measured to the nearest millimeter
using a measuring tape. Hand shape (HS) was defined as hand width to hand length ratio (HW/HL). The shape of the
bowling hand was drawn on a paper after maximal active voluntary abduction of thumb and other fingers. Three
specific groups of hand dimension were measured using this trace [2]. These include 5 finger spans (FS1, FS2, FS3, FS4
and FS5), 5 finger lengths (TL, IFL, MFL, RFL, LFL), and 5 perimeters (P1, P2, P3, P4, P5). Bowling arm wrist joint active
ROM in wrist flexion (WF), wrist extension (WE), ulnar deviation (UD) and radial deviation (RD) was measured with a
standard goniometer. Independent t-test were used to compare the mean of variables between the groups. Pearson
correlation test was used to examine the relationship between anthropometric variables and wrist joint ROM using the
SPSS version 17. Significant level was taken as the P values less than 0.05.
Results: Compared to spin bowlers, fast bowlers had significantly large IFL, MFL, RFL (IFL: p=0.018, MFL: p=0.025, RFL:
p=0.017) and hand length (p=0.025). There was no significant difference between two groups in finger spans (FS1-FS5),
perimeters except for P3 (p=0.01) and in other anthropometric variables (p>0.05). In wrist joint ROM variables, spinners
o
o
had significantly higher WE (69.4+5.2 ; p=0.003) and UD (41.6+4.8 ; p=0.007) compared to fast bowlers (WE =
o
o
o
o
61.0+4.2 ; UD = 35.1+3.1 ). Spinners also had extra 2.5 degree WF and 1.8 degree RD than fast bowlers (p<0.05).
Hand shape (HW/HL) showed a significant positive correlation with ulnar deviation among spin bowlers (r=0.74;
p=0.035), and with wrist extension among fast bowlers (r=0.82; p=0.013). Specific hand dimension variables, including
all finger spans (FS1-FS5), 4 perimeters (P1-3 and 5), TL and IFL were significantly correlate with wrist radial deviation
among fast bowlers (r= -0.74 to -0.94; p<0.05).
Discussion and Conclusions: This study showed significant differences in some of the anthropometric variables (IFL,
MFL, RFL, HL) and wrist joint movements (WE, UD) between spin and fast bowlers. In addition, hand shape and most of
the specific hand dimensions (finger spans, finger lengths and perimeters) revealed significant relationship with wrist
joint ROM in both groups. Discrepancies in these parameters may explain the provision of biomechanical advantage in
spin bowling performance and the potential to develop as a talent identification tool among junior cricketers.
References:
Fallahi AA and Jadidian AA. The effects of hand dimension, hand shape and some anthropometrics on handgrip strength
in male grip athletes and non-athletes. J Hum Kinet. 2011;29:151-159.
Visnapuu M and Jurimae T. Handgrip strength and hand dimensions in young handball and basketball players. J strength
Cond Res. 2007;21(3):923-929.
48
Oral presentations
The effects of a 30 over simulated batting protocol on cognitive
performance: A holistic approach
Theme: Exercise Physiology & Nutrition
David GOBLE1, Candice Christie1
1 Department of Human Kinetics and Ergonomics, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa
Aims: Optimal physical and cognitive function is imperative for cricket players and especially batsmen who are not only
required to be physically well trained but, who are also required to be mentally astute. While the physical demands of
cricket have been fairly well documented, there has been limited attention afforded to cognition and decision making
in cricket. Further, there has been no attempt to quantify the relationship between batting-related fatigue and
cognitive performance in batting. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish how cognition is affected
following a prolonged batting spell, likely to produce physical fatigue.
Methods: Fifteen top order cricket batsmen, who were healthy and free from injury at the time of testing, were
©
recruited to perform a 30 over simulated batting protocol (BATEX - Houghton et al., 2011). The protocol simulated the
scoring of a One Day International (ODI) century and comprised six, five-over stages (21 min each). Each stage was
designed to replicate a particular scenario batsmen may experience in the scoring of a century. Stages one, three and
five required batsmen to complete a series of runs at a self-selected pace; whereas in stages two, four and six players
were required to run at a maximal speed. A cognitive test battery (currently in development) was implemented to
measure executive function and decision making prior to, during and after the batting protocol. These cognitive testes
were performed immediately after the final over of each stage (every five overs) to assess cognitive performance
during high and low intensity activity. Performance (sprint times and impact accuracy) and perceptual responses
(central and local ratings of perceived exertion and body discomfort) were sampled at the same intervals while the
physiological responses (heart rate and oxygen consumption) were sampled throughout the protocol. Sprint
performances were timed using a single-beam timing gate system during stages where batsmen were required to sprint
at an all out pace (two, four and six). Impact accuracy was assessed using a bat fitted with a specialised electronic
wiring device during the last over of each stage, while physiological variables were recorded using a portable metabolic
measurement system (Cortex Metamax, Leipzig, Germany).
Results: The study is currently in the pilot testing phase and results will be collated in January 2015. Preliminary findings
from this investigation will be presented at the conference of Medicine and Science in Cricket in March 2015.
49
Oral presentations
Reliability of performance analysis systems in cricket - a comparative
analysis between novice and experienced manual coders and virtual-eye
Theme: New Developments In Cricket Technology
Zachary Blair GOODCHILD1,2, Mark Sayers2
1 University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, Australia
2 National Cricket Centre, Brisbane, Australia
Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy and reliability of manual performance analysis coding in
comparison to the commercial Virtual-Eye automated ball tracking system in analyzing professional cricket matches.
Methods: An analysis was conducted on a single One-Day International cricket match between Australia and India
during the 2012 Tri Series Cricket Tournament (1,100 events). The study included a Novice (1 week experience),
Professional (> 3 years experience) manual coder who used Fairplay (Fairplay Sports Analysis Systems Pty Ltd, 2011), an
external Independent manual coder and compared these data against values from Virtual-Eye. To measure intra coder
reliability the Novice coder analyzed the match on three separate occasions, each separated by four to six weeks
(Duthie et al, 2003). Events collated were pitching length (m), pitching width (m), bounce height (m) and width at
batsman (m). Coefficient of variation (CV%), Typical Error of Measurement (TEM) and with Intra-class Correlation
Coefficient (ICC) testing were used to assess the reliability and consistency of the Novice coder over the three trials
(Atkinson & Nevill, 2001; Atkinson & Nevill, 1998; Hopkins, 2000). One-way Repeated Measures Analyses of Variation
(ANOVA) procedures were used to determine differences between coders and Virtual-Eye. To assess the influence of
data entry (based on cursor movement) on data accuracy the distance between the base of the stumps (measured with
Fairplay) was compared with the known distance on the pitch. Significance was set at P<0.05 for analyses.
Results: Results indicated that the Novice coder became more reliable in all variables over the three trials although
accuracy of predicting bounce height decreased in Trial 3. Accuracy data indicated that all manual coders significantly
underestimated both pitching length and bounce height (P<0.001). The Novice and Professional coders tended to
overestimate both pitching width and width at batsman by (P<0.001), although there were no differences in these
variables between the Independent coders and Virtual-Eye data (P=0.991 and 0.887). Additional analysis indicated that
the prediction of pitching length was also influenced by bowling velocity. Although we found high levels of intra coder
data entry accuracy, considerable differences existed between the Novice and Professional coders.
Discussion: Results showed that a novice operator can achieve reliable data after only 3 trials. However, results suggest
that concerns remain as to the accuracy of data for both experienced and novice coders for predicting pitching length,
pitching width, bounce height and width at batsman. The greatest errors were between the manual coding and the
Industry Standard system when coding both pitching length and width. This may be due to ball velocity quality of the
broadcast. The influence of perspective error associated with the broadcast footage coupled with the need to develop
“real time” analysis probably accounts for the majority of these errors. This study showed that an intervention study is
required to formulate relative pitch sizes and coding areas to assist performance analysts. If data recorded by manual
coders is in accurate then it may influence the way bowlers, batsman and coaches determine the results to prepare for
matches or training situations.
50
Oral presentations
Electromyography of the abdominal muscles during the delivery stride of
fast bowling demonstrates differences between adolescent cricketers
with and without back pain
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
Janine GRAY1,2, Wayne Derman2, Christopher Vaughan2, Paul Hodges3
1 Cricket South Africa, Cape Town, South Africa
2 University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
3 University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
Aims: Trunk muscle morphology differs between fast bowlers with and without low back pain. However, there is no
consensus between authors on the specifics of this relationship. Behavior of the trunk muscles is also modified in
cricket fast bowlers with low back pain (LBP), but these findings are the result of investigations completed in a clinical
setting using very simple tasks. The relationship of these findings to muscle recruitment during the delivery stride in
fast bowling and LBP is unclear. This study aimed to compare trunk muscle recruitment during the delivery stride in fast
bowlers with and without LBP.
Methods: Twelve adolescent provincial level specialist fast bowlers (6 with and 6 without LBP) bowled 6 deliveries at
normal fast pace with good accuracy. Times of back (BFI) and front (FFI) foot impact were identified using the Vicon 370
motion analysis system. Fine–wire electromyography (EMG) was recorded from transversus abdominis (TrA) bilaterally,
and from non-dominant obliquus internus (OIN) and externus (OEN) abdominis. Surface EMG was collected from the
rectus abdominis, erector spinae, and multifidus muscles on the non-dominant side. Periods of low (<15% peak EMG)
and high activity (>70% peak EMG) were identified and these were compared between groups.
Results: During the delivery stride OIN and OEN co-contracted at BFI and FFI in fast bowlers without LBP. However, OIN
EMG was <15% peak for a greater duration in the bowlers with LBP related to BFI and FFI (p<0.05. OEN remained active,
generally >70% peak, during these periods and there was no difference between groups. Unlike controls, OEN EMG was
relatively inactive between BFI and FFI in LBP participants. TrAN was >70% peak for longer between BFI and FFI and
TrAD was inactive for longer before/after delivery stride in LBP.
Conclusion: The co-contraction strategy present at BFI and FFI in the bowlers without low back pain was not evident in
the bowlers with back pain. The relative inactivity of OEN during the rotation of the trunk between BFI and FFI further
supports a suboptimal lumbar control strategy during the delivery stride in bowlers with LBP. These findings can
provide meaningful input into both prehabilitation and rehabilitation programmes for fast bowlers.
51
Oral presentations
Abdominal wall injuries in cricket; a review of the cricket Australia injury
database 1995-2014
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
David HUMPHRIES1,2
1 Sport and Exercise Medicine Physician Cricket Tasmania. Clinical Lecturer University of Tasmania
2 Cricket Tasmania, Tasmania, Australia
Aims: The aim of this presentation is to elucidate the types, frequency, risk factors and other variables in the abdominal
wall injuries suffered by professional cricketers
Methods: The injury database of Cricket Australia for the period 1995-2014 was reviewed and data on all injuries
related to the abdominal wall extracted. This data was then analyzed to allow a long term picture of types, frequency,
risk factors and other variables to be developed. The data set used is non-identifiable and hence poses negligible risk of
harm to subjects. Hence as per the NHMRC National Statement on Ethical Guidelines March 2014 Human Research
Ethics Committee approval was not sought.
Results: The number of abdominal wall injuries in professional cricketers per season is slowly increasing. Injuries to the
oblique muscles account for the vast majority of injuries to this anatomical region with pace bowlers accounting for
over 90% of injuries. A pattern of seasonal occurrence can be drawn from the data and it may be possible to reduce the
risk of these injuries occurring with pre-season interventions.
Discussion and Conclusions: Early data on the clinical presentation of injuries to the abdominal wall in cricketers was
first reported in the scientific literature in 2004[1]. Ten cases were described and preliminary ideas concerning the
nature of these injuries and who sustained them was presented. The Cricket Australia injury database collects injury
data in Australian cricketers playing at state and national level. This data is reported annually in a Cricket Australia
report. With 20 years of data on 174 abdominal wall injuries it is now possible to draw a much more comprehensive
picture of the nature of these injuries. By far the most common injury is to the oblique abdominal muscles in pace
bowlers on the non-bowling arm side. There is a significant trend in when these injuries occur, with the first 2 months
of the Australian cricket season being the peak risk period although they can occur at any time during the season.
Injuries are also seen to the rectus abdominis muscles and the lower ribs. Unlike in baseball batsmen in cricket rarely
sustain abdominal wall injuries and injuries to the abdominal wall are also unusual during fielding. Overall these injuries
are relatively frequent, they cause significant loss of playing time and it may be possible to reduce the incidence with
preseason preparation.
References:
Humphries, D. and M. Jamison, Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging features of cricket bowler's side strain. Br J
Sports Med, 2004. 38(5): p. E21.
52
Oral presentations
Using mobile monitoring technology to develop an in-match physiological
profile of professional fast-medium bowlers
Theme: Strength & Conditioning
James JOHNSTONE1, Paul Ford3, Gerwyn Hughes2, Tim Watson2, Kirsten Rennie2,
Robert Kozarki2, Ant Sharp4, Andrew Mitchell5, Andrew Garrett6
1 Sport & Exercise Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK
2 Life and Medical Sciences, University of Hertfordshire, UK
3 British Olympic Association, London, UK
4 High Performance Centre, New Zealand Cricket, Canterbury, NZ
5 Sport Science and Physical Activity, University of Bedfordshire, UK
6 Dept. Sport, Health and Exercise, University of Hull, UK
Aims: Previous physiological data on fast bowlers has been captured in simulated bowling environments, questioning
ecological validity. With the advent of mobile monitoring technology, data collection from competitive performance
environments may be possible. Moreover, coaches have requested more applied data which may provide a unique
TM
insight into players’ performance. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effectiveness of the Bioharness mobile
physiological monitoring system to develop a physiological profile of fast-medium bowlers across One Day (OD) and
Multi Day (MD) formats of professional cricket.
TM
Methods: Ten professional fast-medium cricket bowlers wore the Bioharness during competitive matches, over three
seasons, collecting >80 hours of in-match data from OD and MD cricket. Based on reliability and validity testing of the
TM
multi-variable Bioharness device, accelerometry (ACC) data (combined and individual tri-axial counts), and heart rate
(HR) data (absolute and relative values) were used to profile participants. For analysis, data was organised into match
types (OD and MD) and match states (bowling, between over, fielding), the latter was completed using the combined
tri-axial ACC data which corresponded to bowling activity. Heart rate (HR) data had polynomial smoothing applied.
Results: The physiological profile indicated that ACC data presented a trend of higher values in OD compared to MD
-1
cricket with peak acceleration significantly higher when all data was reported (OD, 227.6 vs MD 214.9 ct.episode ,
-1
P<.01; ES -0.14) and also during bowling activity (234.1 vs 226.6 ct.episode , P<.05; ES -0.12). Higher OD lateral right
-1
acceleration was reported in combined data (-89.5 vs -84.8 ct.episode , P<.01; ES -0.11), and also during bowling (-99.5
-1
vs -93.5 ct.episode , P<.05; ES -0.13). Left lateral acceleration was lower during OD bowling (115.4 vs 122.6 ct.episode
1
-1
, P<.05; ES -0.17) and also during between over activity (52.5 vs 66.4 ct.episode ,P<.05; ES -0.20). Anterior acceleration
-1
was significantly lower in OD compared to MD games (172.7 vs 222.5 ct.episode ,P<.05; ES -0.27). ACC data were
higher during OD fielding activities (P<.01; ES ≥ -0.25). For HR data, OD cricket stimulated higher HR (OD, 142 vs MD,
-1
137 beats.min , P<.05; Effect Size (ES) ≥ -0.13) when compared to MD matches, except for age related HR maximum,
HR 10 seconds pre and 60 seconds post bowling (P>.05). Higher HR was reported in OD compared to MD cricket during
-1
-1
bowling (OD, 143 vs MD, 137 beats.min ; P<.05, ES ≥ -0.12), between over (129 vs 120 beats.min ,P<.01; ES ≥ -0.27)
-1
and also fielding activity (115 vs 106 beats.min , P<.01; ES ≥ -0.20).
TM
Discussion and Conclusions: The Bioharness successfully presents in-match data identifying differences in ACC and
HR between different cricket formats and match states during fast-medium bowling. These data are the first to be
reported from a professional competitive match environment providing a more ecologically valid data set for the coach
to assess. Capturing in-match data provides a better understanding for coaches and exercise scientists of the
requirements for the sport which could enhance physiological preparation and recovery for fast-medium bowlers.
Future research should utilise mobile monitoring technology, over short and long terms, to help optimise sporting
performance.
53
Oral presentations
Calculating elbow extension during cricket bowling using a marker based
system
Theme: Umpiring Skills & Cricket Rules
Mark KING1, Maurice Yeadon1
1 School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK
Background: Marker based systems are currently used to establish whether a bowler is bowling within the permitted
15º elbow extension limit. The location of the marker triad near the elbow has changed over the last 15 years from the
original position mid-arm (Lloyd et al., 2000) to a location nearer the elbow (Campbell et al., 2009) The effect of marker
placement around the elbow on calculated elbow extension is unclear.
Aims: To identify the differences in calculated elbow extension angles using pairs of markers at the shoulder and wrist
together with (a) a pair of markers near the condyles and (b) a triad of markers on the back of the upper arm close to
the elbow.
Methods: Twelve elite male fast bowlers and twelve elite male spin bowlers participated in this investigation. Nine
markers on the bowling arm were used to create two marker sets. The first marker set (pair) consisted of three pairs of
markers at the wrist, elbow and shoulder (King and Yeadon, 2012). The second marker set (triad) used the same pairs
of markers at the wrist and shoulder, along with a triad of markers positioned on the posterior side of the upper arm
near the elbow. Elbow extension angles were calculated for each bowler using both marker sets and were also
compared to estimates of elbow extension obtained from high speed video recordings of each bowler.
Results: The root mean square (RMS) difference in elbow extension angle between the two methods at four key
instants (upper arm horizontal, maximum elbow flexion, maximum elbow extension, ball release) was 8º for 12 fast
bowlers and 4º for 12 spin bowlers. When evaluated against video estimates of the elbow extension angle for the fast
bowlers, the elbow extension angle calculated using the pair method had an RMS error of 2º while the triad method
had an RMS error of 8º. The corresponding errors for the spin bowlers were 3º and 5º respectively.
Discussion and Conclusions: There were substantial RMS differences in the elbow extension angle time histories that
were more pronounced for the fast bowlers than for the spin bowlers. When compared against an independent
criterion angle measure from video the triad elbow extension angles had greater deviations than the pair elbow
extension angles. As a consequence the differences between the two methods can be accounted for by errors arising
from the triad method. While the criterion video estimates of arm extension angle may have limited precision they
have the advantage of being largely independent of skin and soft tissue movement whereas markers placed on the skin
have the potential to suffer from skin and soft tissue movement artefacts. It is thought that the greater errors
associated with the triad is a consequence of soft tissue movement in this dynamic activity. This is consistent with the
finding of greater error for the fast bowlers compared to the spin bowlers.
References:
Lloyd, D.G., Alderson, J., & Elliott, B.C. 2000. JSS, 18, 975-982.
Campbell, A.C. et al. 2009. MBEC, 47, 543-550.
King, M.A., Yeadon, M.R., 2012. JSS, 30, 937–947.
54
Oral presentations
Tracking the spin of the cricket ball with SIFT feature matching and Kalman
filtering
Theme: Biomechanics of Technique and Performance
Gihan KURUPPU1, Tharindu Fernando2, S. R. Kodituwakku2, U. A. J. Pinidiyaarachchi2
1 Postgraduate Institute of Science, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
2 Department of Statistics and Computer Science, Faulty of Science, University of Peradeniya, Sri
Lanka
Background: Science and technology is becoming increasingly used in cricket, to evaluate player performance, revealing
technical mechanisms in minute detail, which also serves to attract more public interest. The behaviour of the ball in
flight is an important performance parameter in bowling. This paper proposes a robust algorithm, which is capable of
tracking the spin of the cricket ball in real time. Novel state-of-the-art feature matching and noise removal techniques
are employed to evaluate the spin rate (rpm) and the direction of the cricket ball more precisely, in any complex noisy
environment.
Methods: To detect the ball from complex background in the sporting environment a Circle Hough Transform (CHT) [1]
combined with colour image segmentation was employed. First, the frame was threshold for red colour before CHT was
applied with a predefined circle radius for the ball. After detecting the ball region, invariant features from that area was
extracted by using the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) technique [2]. In order to efficiently identify the
potential interest points, this SIFT algorithm was implemented using a difference-of-Gaussian function. The algorithm
used a 128 elements feature vector to describe each feature point. After detecting feature points of the ball, the
correspondence between two consecutive frames was derived by obtaining the largest subset of features in both
frames. Although SIFT features are distinctive and often result in reliable matching, SIFT features can sometimes match
a point that does not exactly correspond to the correct location, but instead relates to points within the same object.
The Kalman filter is widely used to predict a physical object's future location [3]. Hence, the velocity profile of the ball
was modelled using Kalman Filter, assuming a constant velocity of the cricket ball. The objective was to predict the
most probable location of the ball and the true location of the ball from the location of the matched key points. These
measurement values would be later used to update the Kalman filter. In order to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed
algorithm, the ball was spun using a motor. An iron screw, which was used to connect the ball to the motor, was drilled
through the centre of the seam. Sony HVR-S270E camera was used to obtain the video sequences of these rotations.
These speeds were captured at 400fps as a video sequence.
Results: In this study, above setup was trialled with eight different speeds: 50,100,150,200,250,300,350,400 RPM for
time duration of 24 seconds. The proposed algorithm was applied and the resultant RPMs was validated against the
actual values. For each actual speed value stated above the proposed algorithm yield the following Mean ±SD RPM
values 50 ±1.758, 98.083 ±3.204, 149.17 ±1.90, 199.92 ± 0.793, 248.58 ±3.03, 300.33 ±3.14, 348.42 ±2.39, 400.50 ±
4.12 respectively. This ensures the high accuracy of the proposed algorithm.
Discussion and Conclusions: The novelty of this study was to apply the SIFT feature extraction and matching with stateof-the art noise filtering techniques to come up with more precise measurements for ball spin rate. The proposed
algorithm is capable to track the spin of the cricket ball with over 90 percent accuracy even within the noisy background
of the sporting environment. This method of tracking the ball will be developed to provide real time feedback to
players. Furthermore it can be used in television sports transmissions, in order to provide a detailed analysis about the
delivery to the viewers.
References:
Duda R. O., Hart P. E.: Use of the hough transformation to detect lines and curves in pictures. Communications of the
ACM 15, 1 (1972), 11–15.
55
Lowe D. G.: Distinctive Image Features from Scale Invariant Key points, International Journal of Computer Vision, 60, 2,
2004, pp. 91-110.
Dan S., Baojun Z.: A Tracking Algorithm Based on SIFT and Kalman Filter, The 2nd International Conference on
Computer Application and System Modeling (2012).
56
Oral presentations
Investigating the performance effects of a faster delivery of spin bowling
Theme: Biomechanics of Technique and Performance
Gihan KURUPPU1, J.P Gamage2, S. R. Kodituwakku3, U. A. J. Pinidiyaarachchi3
1 Postgraduate Institute of Science, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
2 Department of Emergency Medicine, Swan District Health Services, Western Australia
3 Department of Statistics and Computer Science, Faulty of Science, University of Peradeniya, Sri
Lanka
Aims: At elite level, fast bowlers produce an effective slower delivery to deceive batsmen, restricting runs and taking
wickets at crucial situations. However, faster delivery in spin bowling is not considered as effective as in fast bowling.
However, the ability to bowl a faster delivery while maintaining key performance characteristics could be useful for spin
bowlers (Aaron Beach, 2012) (Justham). Our objective was to quantitatively compare the fast and normal speed
deliveries of spin bowlers.
Methods: Ten elite level spin bowlers (4 leg-spinners and 6 off-spinners) aged between 20 -29 years were selected for
performance evaluation. Each bowler produced 24 deliveries: a random allocation of 12 normal speed deliveries and 12
faster deliveries. The bowlers were tested outdoors, required to bowl on a good length in the line of middle stump. The
speed of ball releasing was measured with a speed radar gun (Stalker Pro II) positioned behind the bowling arm. The
ball was tracked using three orthogonally positioned high-speed cameras (Sony HVR-Z5P). The video footage was
analyzed using correlation coefficient template matching: the Circle Hough Transform (CHT) combined with colour
image segmentation [3]. The performance parameters included degree of ball turn (BT), bowling length (BL), maximum
vertical flight height (FH) and maximum vertical bounce height (BH). Two Statistical testings were used: paired sample ttests to compare performance variables between normal and fast deliveries, and Pearson correlation coefficient test to
evaluate the relationship between the speed of the ball and performance variables.
Results: The spin bowlers were capable of producing a fast delivery (79.7 3.9 km/hour) with an added speed of
7.7 1.9 km/hour (10.8 3.1%) compared to their normal speed spin delivery (72.1 4.5 km/hour; p=0.000). The degree
of ball turn for the normal speed delivery was 31.3 4.6 degrees, although the fast delivery had significantly less turn
8.7 3.9° (27.3 8.7%) (p=0.000). There was also a 12.2 cm drop in the maximum flight height with the fast delivery
(213.1 13.9 cm) compared to normal speed delivery (225.3 25.1 cm; p=0.01). There was no significant difference in
bowling length (263.0 29.6 cm in normal speed delivery; 273.1 59.0 cm in fast delivery; p=0.66) and the maximum
bounce height (84.0+8.9 cm in normal speed delivery; 77.5 7.9 cm in fast delivery; p=0.06). Maximum ball flight height
was negatively correlated with bowling speed (r=-0.824; p=0.003).
Discussion and Conclusions: This study revealed that elite level spin bowlers are capable of maintaining their bowling
length and maximum bounce height when producing a fast delivery. However, there was significant reduction in ball
turn and drop in maximum ball flight height. These data will assist to instruct spin bowlers on the adjustments required
for the faster delivery.
References:
L., West, A., Cork, A. Justham, "Quantification and characterization of cricket bowling technique for the development of
the parameters required for a novel training system for cricket," Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, vol. 222,
no. 61-76.
René Ferdinands and Peter Sinclair. Aaron Beach, "Measuring spin characteristics of a cricket ball," in 30th Annual
Conference of Biomechanics in Sports , Melbourne, 2012.
S. R. Kodituwakku, U. A. J. Pinidiyaarachchi G. Kuruppu, "High Speed Motion Tracking for Weightlifting based on
Correlation Coefficient Template Matching," International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering, vol. 2, 2013.
57
Oral presentations
Novel method of using two-dimensional video analysis to track the
bowling arm in real-time
Gihan KURUPPU1, J.P Gamage2, Asela J.B.Rathnayake3, Tharindu Fernando4
1 Postgraduate Institute of Science, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
2 Department of Emergency Medicine, Swan District Health Services, Western Australia
3 Division of Sports Medicine , Orthopaedic & Trauma Unit, Teaching Hospital , Sri Lanka
4 Department of Statistics and Computer Science, Faulty of Science, University of Peradeniya, Sri
Lanka
Background: Currently, most technically advanced method in examining bowling action is the laboratory based threedimensional motion analysis. This involves attachment of markers / sensors / probes on the bowling arm, which can
affect usual bowling action compared to real time bowling. Therefore, methods to examine bowling action in real time
play without influencing bowler’s action can be a useful tool in future.
Aim: Aim of this study was to develop a novel method to separately identify bowling arm using Viola-Johns Face
Detection (VJFD) technique with two-dimensional video analysis in real time performance.
Method: The study was conducted in 2 steps. In the first step, 10 elite level spin bowlers (age =20 to 35) performed 100
deliveries in total at match condition. Bowling action was captured using two high speed cameras (1000 fps; Sony HVRZ5P) positioned in front (face-on view) and side (side-on view). Front and side view images were trained /analyzed using
VJFD technique to track the bowlers face.
In the second step, another 10 elite level spin bowlers (age =20 to 35) performed 100 deliveries and bowlers face was
identified using the previously trained VJFD method in step 1. An algorhythm was developed using these face
dimensions to locate and separate the bowling arm (Region of Interest), which equal to size of 4 faces. In order to
examine the reliability of the trained VJFD used in step 2, each front and side face image was measured by 4 examiners
independently and mean value was taken as the ground truth. These dimensions were then compared with the
dimensions provided by the trained VJFD for bowlers face.
Results and Discussion: Region of interest (bowling arm) was identified successfully for all deliveries in both front and
side views using the trained VJFD method. Reliability measure of the trained VJFD for spin blowers revealed 93% and 80
% accuracy in front and side face detections respectively against the ground truth.
Conclusion: Trained VJFD method can be used successfully to isolate / separately identify bowling arm of spin bowlers
in cricket. Training this system using large number of bowling faces can improve the accuracy and reliability of this
technique. Further studies to advance this novel method is warrant, which can be develop to identify elbow angle of
bowlers in real time play, without using external applications.
58
Oral presentations
Five-year epidemiology of muscle injuries in professional cricket
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
BEN LANGLEY1, Craig Ranson2, Isabel Moore2
1 England and Wales Cricket Board
2 Sports injury Research Group, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, United Kingdom
Background: Muscle injuries make up a large proportion of injuries within sports such as cricket and football (Ekstrand,
Hagglund & Walden, 2011; Orchard et al. 2010). The quadriceps and hamstrings appear particularly susceptible to
injury in cricket (Orchard et al. 2011). Prospective, longitudinal injury surveillance is required in order to identify the
most important cricket related muscle injury problems and their risk factors in order to optimize prevention and
management.
Aims: To investigate the incidence, severity and risk factors for muscle injury in professional cricket.
Methods: Prospective injury surveillance data from 18 England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) First Class Count Cricket
(FCCC) squads over five years (2009 to 2013). All time-loss muscle injuries during each season (April to September) were
analysed based on internationally agreed methods (Orchard et al. 2005). Seasonal muscle injury incidence was
measured as injuries per team per 100 days, and for matches, per 1000 match hours. 95% confidence intervals (CI)
were calculated to determine significant differences.
Results: Overall, 321 muscle injuries were reported, equating to 36% of the total injuries. On average, a player
sustained 0.15 muscle injuries per season. Each County can therefore expect four muscle injuries each season. Onethird of all days-lost were due to muscle injuries. The top-five muscle groups affected were; hamstrings (29%),
adductors (14%), calf muscles (13%), abdominal obliques (‘side-strains’)(12%) and quadriceps (9%). The majority (85%)
of muscle injuries occurred during matches, with 47% sustained during four-day matches. However, muscle injury
incidence was lower in four-day matches (0.7/1000 hours, 95% CI 0.6-0.8) compared to Twenty-20 (2.3/1000 hours,
95% CI 1.7-3.1) and one-day matches (1.7/1000 hours, 95% CI 1.3-2.2). Adductor and oblique muscle injuries had a
higher injury incidence during one-day matches than four-day matches, whilst, hamstring injury incidence was higher in
Twenty-20 matches than four-day matches. Batting and bowling muscle injury incidence was higher during one-day and
Twenty-20 matches than four-day matches. Yet overall, bowling match muscle injury incidence (18.1/1000 hours, 95%
CI 15.5-21.1) was higher than any other activity, in addition to causing the most time-loss per muscle injury (23 days).
Eleven percent of the muscle injuries were recurrences, predominantly to the hamstring (4% of all muscle injuries) and
calf (3%). Recurrent injuries to these muscles were more severe than new injuries (hamstring 24 vs. 13 days; calf 25 vs.
21 days).
Discussion and Conclusions: Muscle injuries are a significant problem in cricket, equating to over one-third of all timeloss injuries and nearly one-third of all days-lost. Muscle injuries have a similar impact within football (Ekstrand et al.
2011). Prioritising the prevention and management of new hamstring and calf muscle strains could be extremely
beneficial and may reduce the number of recurrences and/or lessen the number of days-lost per recurrent injury. Oneday and Twenty-20 matches have a higher rate of muscle injuries than the longer four-day matches. This could possibly
be due to the faster pace of the matches, particularly as there was a high rate of bowling and batting muscle injuries
during these match formats.
References:
Ekstrand, J., Hagglund, M. & Walden, M. (2011). Epidemiology of muscle injuries in professional football (soccer). Am J
Sports Med.
Orchard, J. et al. (2010). Changes to injury profile (and recommended cricket injury definitions) based on the increased
frequency of Twenty20 cricket matches. Open Access J Sports Med.
Orchard, J. et al. (2005). Methods for injury surveillance in international cricket. Br J Sports Med.
59
Oral presentations
Four-year injury surveillance of an international women's cricket squad
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
Rachael Evans1, Ben LANGLEY1, Craig Ranson2
1 England and Wales Cricket Board
2 Sports injury Research Group, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, United Kingdom
Background: To date there have been only a limited number of epidemiological studies in female sport with the results
suggesting similar rates but varying types and severity between genders. Effective injury surveillance allows for the
identification of priority injury problems and their risk factors and this information is fundamental in directing injury
prevention strategies. However, whilst there some injury data is available from a few Men’s international cricket teams
[1-3] there is no published research investigating injuries in elite female cricketers.
Aims: To describe longitudinal injury rates, types, severity and mechanisms in an International Women’s Cricket Team
Methods: The Team Physiotherapist and Medical Officer recorded injury data for the England Women’s and England
Women’s Academy Teams from May 2009 to May 2012. Data collection was based on consensus methods [4] although
both time-loss injuries (defined as a player being considered unavailable for match selection on any given day) and non
time-loss injuries (injuries requiring medical attention but not resulting in the player being considered unavailable for
selection) were included.
Results: There were 74 time-loss (accounting for 2604 days lost) and 160 non time-loss injuries. Lower back
(contributing 25% of all days lost), ankle and shoulder injuries resulted in the most lost time. The thigh had the greatest
number of injuries (17) with nine quadriceps and five hamstring strains. Of the most severe injuries (resulting in > 100
total days lost) ankle lateral ligaments sprains, and in bowlers, lumbar stress fractures, were the most costly diagnoses.
Forty-seven percent of time-loss injuries occurred during matches and 39% during training (14% during ‘other’
activities) with the majority occurring during fielding (28%, half of these sustained whilst diving), bowling (27%) and
batting (22%). Lower back pain (14%)(particularly in fast bowlers) and throwing related shoulder pain (11%) where the
most common non time-loss diagnoses.
Discussion and Conclusions: This is the first injury surveillance record from International Women’s Cricket. Overall, it
appears that injury occurrence is lower than in Men’s elite cricket although the severity of injury may be higher. The
results suggest that risk factors for lower back, thigh muscle strain, ankle sprain, throwing related shoulder pain and
diving related fielding injury should be targeted within injury prevention strategies. Injury surveillance within Women’s
cricket should be expanded to include several nations and should be expanded to investigate risk factors for priority
injuries such as workload.
References:
Mansingh, A., et al., Injuries in West Indies cricket 2003-2004. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 2006. 40(2): p. 119123.
Orchard, J.W., et al., Changes to injury profile (and recommended cricket injury definitions) based on the increased
frequency of Twenty20 cricket matches. Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, 2010. 1: p. 63–76.
Ranson, C., et al., International cricket injury surveillance: a report of five teams competing in the ICC Cricket World Cup
2011. Br J Sports Med, 2013. 47(10): p. 637-43.
Orchard, J.W., et al., Methods for injury surveillance in international cricket. Br J Sports Med, 2005. 39(4): p. e22-.
60
Oral presentations
Five-year injury types and rates of first class county cricket
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
Ben LANGLEY1, David Newman, Isabel Moore2, Nick Peirce1, Craig Ranson2
1 England and Wales Cricket Board
2 Sports injury Research Group, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, United Kingdom
Background: There are few injury surveillance studies within domestic professional cricket, with Australia and New
Zealand the only nations to report longitudinal data [1 2]. The England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) First Class County
Cricket (FCCC) competitions include 18 Teams and over 400 professional players. There is a clear need for on-going
year-round cricket surveillance in order to identify and inform management of priority injury problems and this is the
first multi-year injury surveillance study within ECB FCCC.
Aims: To investigate injury rates, types, severity and risk factors from longitudinal injury surveillance data of FCCC.
Methods: Prospective injury surveillance data of 18 FCCC squads over five years (2009 to 2013). All time-loss injuries
during each season (April to September) were analysed based on internationally agreed methods [3] although both
time-loss injuries (defined as a player being considered unavailable for match selection on any given day) and non timeloss injuries (injuries requiring medical attention but not resulting in the player being considered unavailable for
selection) were included. Seasonal injury incidence was measured as injuries per team per 100 days and for matches,
per 1000 match hours. 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for injury incidence with significance reported
when 95% CI did not overlap.
Results: 902 time-loss injuries were sustained over five years, with an injury incidence of 6/team/100days (match
4/team/100days, training 1/team/100days) and prevalence of 5%. An average of 23 days were lost per injury. Bowling
injuries resulted in the highest incidence (5/team/100days), prevalence (8%) and average days-lost per injury (37)
compared to batting and fielding. The thigh was the body area with highest incidence (1/team/100days) and prevalence
(0.6%), with 73% of these being hamstring related. However, knee injuries resulted in the greatest average time-loss
per injury (45 days), with the most severe knee injuries being osteochondral defects (63 days-lost per injury). Match
injury incidence was significantly higher for one-day (0.49/1000 hours, 95% CI 0.42-0.57) and twenty20 (T20) matches
(0.62/1000 hours, 0.52-0.75), than four day matches (0.20/1000 hours, 95% CI 0.18-0.22). However, four-day matches
had the highest injury prevalence (2%) compared to one day (0.7%) and T20 matches (0.7%). Whilst injuries sustained
during practice matches resulted in the greatest number of days-lost per injury (average of 37 days). The majority (47%)
of practice match injuries occurred in the first month of each season, with 60% of these occurring whilst bowling.
Discussions and Conclusions: Bowling related injury should be prioritised within injury prevention programmes along
with the relatively high rate of hamstring strains. Practice match injuries typically occurred during the beginning of the
season and were the most severe match injuries compared to the other competitive matches. Possible mechanisms
that may have contributed to this are a player’s workload and/or a player’s condition at that time in the season. Muscle
strength deficits, in particular, are know risk factors for acute muscle injury and quantification and remediation of these
in the most susceptible muscle groups should be included within FCCC injury prevention programmes.
References:
Frost WL, Chalmers DJ. Injury in elite New Zealand cricketers 2002-2008: descriptive epidemiology. Br. J. Sports Med.
2012 doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2012-091337[published Online First: Epub Date]|.
Orchard JW, James T, Kountouris A, Portus M. Changes to injury profile (and recommended cricket injury definitions)
based on the increased frequency of Twenty20 cricket matches. Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine 2010;1:63–76
Orchard JW, Newman D, Stretch R, Frost W, Mansingh A, Leipus A. Methods for injury surveillance in international
cricket. Br. J. Sports Med. 2005;39(4):e22- doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2004.012732[published Online First: Epub Date]|
61
Oral presentations
Longitudinal injury surveillance for an international team cricket
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
Akshai MANSINGH1, CJ Clarke1, Isabel Moore2, Craig Ranson2
1 West Indies Cricket
2 Sports injury Research Group, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, United Kingdom
Background: There are few injury surveillance studies within international cricket, with Australia [1] and the West
Indies [2] the only teams to report longitudinal data during the last decade. Therefore, there is a clear need for ongoing year-round international cricket surveillance in order to identify, and inform management of priority injury
problems within the game.
Aims: To investigate injury rates, types, severity and risk factors from longitudinal injury surveillance data of an
international cricket squad.
Methods: Prospective injury surveillance of all players selected for one national team squad over ten years (2005 to
2014). Data collection was based on consensus methods [3] although both time-loss (TL) injuries (defined as a player
being considered unavailable for match selection on any given day) and non time-loss (NTL) injuries (injuries requiring
medical attention but not resulting in the player being considered unavailable for selection) were included. Injury
incidence was calculated as injuries per 100 days.
Results: 404 injuries were sustained [212 NTL injuries (52%); 192 TL injuries (48%)] by 79 players, equating to 1.21
injuries/100 days (0.63 NTL; 0.57 TL). The incidence of NTL injuries was higher than TL injuries during training (0.28 vs.
022/100 days), but similar during matches (0.29/100 days). A greater percentage of NTL injuries were chronic compared
to TL injuries (32 vs. 15% respectively). Mild injuries (1-3 days) had the highest incidence (0.23/100 days), followed by
severe (> 21 days; 0.13/100 days) and minimal (4-7 days; 0.11/100 days). Nearly two-thirds (62%) of the severe injuries
were sustained during matches. Fielding resulted in the most NTL and TL injuries (70 and 53 respectively), with Wicketkeeping only resulting in 6 NTL injuries. The hand, lower back, shoulder and knee had the highest injury incidence,
accounting for 42% of all injuries, although there were also a high number of NTL ankle injuries and TL hamstring strain
injuries.
Discussion and Conclusions: There was a relatively low injury incidence over the ten year period, in addition to a high
proportion of injuries being TL in comparison to other findings [4]. Wicket-keepers in particularly had the lowest injury
risk, but fielding resulted in the most injuries. NTL injuries had a greater incidence during training, however, it is
unknown whether training needed to be modified as a result of these injuries. Future work should look to include this
information. Whilst the majority of injuries were mild, nearly one-quarter were severe. These injuries were
predominantly sustained during matches. Therefore, it is possible that management strategies, such as continuing to
play, may negatively impact the severity of injuries. Prevention strategies for hamstring strain injuries should be
implemented focusing on known risk factors, such as muscle strength deficiencies, whereas for ankle injuries, being
able to manage on-going NTL injuries should be targeted.
References:
Orchard JW, James T, Kountouris A, Portus M. Changes to injury profile (and recommended cricket injury definitions)
based on the increased frequency of Twenty20 cricket matches. Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine 2010;1:63–76
Mansingh A, Harper L, Headley S, King MJ, Mansingh G. Injuries in West Indies cricket 2003-2004. Br. J. Sports Med.
2006;40(2):119-23
Orchard JW, Newman D, Stretch R, Frost W, Mansingh A, Leipus A. Methods for injury surveillance in international
cricket. Br. J. Sports Med. 2005;39(4):e22- doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2004.012732[published Online First: Epub Date]|.
Mount S, Moore I, Ranson C. Injury types and rates in an international cricket team: Application of subsequent injury
categorisation. Br. J. Sports Med. 2014;48(7): 642
62
Oral presentations
Ankle dorsiflexion range and posterior ankle impingement syndrome
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
Steve MCCAIG1, Craig Ranson2
1 Science and Medicine Department, ECB, Loughborough, United Kingdom
2 Sports injury Research Group, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, United Kingdom
Background: Posterior ankle impingement syndrome (PAIS) is a common injury in fast bowling (Mansingh, 2011). Whilst
there are biomechanical factors that relate to the development of this condition (Spratford and Hicks, 2014), no
physical risk factors have been identified. Reduced ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (DF) has been linked to increased
risk of trunk, back and lower limb injuries in fast bowlers (Dennis et al, 2008), however there are no reports specifically
investigating ankle range of motion and PAIS.
Aims: To investigate the relationship between pre-season ankle DF and PAIS in young fast bowlers.
Methods: DF was measured at the start of pre-season training in all fast bowlers involved a National Development
Programme (age range 16 to 19yrs, mean 17yrs). Dominant (DOM) and non-dominant (NDOM) side DF was measured
via the knee to wall method (Dennis et al, 2008). Occurrence of PAIS during the previous season was obtained from the
players’ medical records. All fast bowlers were prospectively monitored for the development of PAIS over the following
season (summer season or winter tours).
Results: 42 fast bowlers had DF measured during pre-season screenings that occurred between 2009-10 and 2013-14.
There were 22 incidences of PAIS in the 6 months prior to these measurements. There were 16 incidences of PAIS in the
6 months post pre-season screening. NDOM ankle DF was reduced in those who developed PAIS compared to those
that did not (mean 8degs +/-2 vs. 10degs +/-3 respectively). Bowlers with PAIS in the previous season has less (bilateral)
DF than those with no previous season PAIS (NDOM 9degs +/-2 and DOM 9degs +/-3, compared to 12degs +/-3 and
12.3degs +/-4, P = 0.01 and P=0.05 respectively)
Discussion and Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that reduced DF is a potential risk factor for the
development of PAIS in cricket fast bowlers and therefore should be regularly monitored. The results also indicate that
regaining DF reduces the likelihood of PAIS recurrence and therefore restoring normal DF ROM should be an objective
in rehabilitating bowlers with PAIS. Further research incorporating other known risk factors such as fast bowling
technique characteristics and workloads (Spratford and Hicks, 2014; Dennis et al, 2005) is recommended.
References:
Mansingh (2011) Posterior Ankle Impingement in fast bowlers in cricket. West Indian Medical Journal
Spratford. W and Hicks. A (2014). Increased delivery stride places greater loads on the ankle joint in elite male cricket
fast bowlers. Journal of Sport Sciences
Dennis et al (2008) Use of Field Based Tests to Identify Risk Factors for Injury to Fast Bowlers in Cricket. BJSM
Dennis et al (2005) Is bowling workload a risk factor for injury to Australian junior fast bowlers? BJSM
63
Oral presentations
Humeral torsion in adolescent cricketers
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
Steve MCCAIG1, James Blacknall2 , Craig Ranson3
1 Science and Medicine Department, ECB, Loughborough, United Kingdom
2 Physiotherapy Department, City Hospital, Nottingham, United Kingdom
3 Sports injury Research Group, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, United Kingdom
Background: Increased humeral torsion in the dominant arm compared to the non-dominant arm has been
documented in overarm throwing athletes, especially baseballers (Whitely et al, 2009). Increased humeral torsion is
thought to be a protective adaptation to throwing as it allows for greater range of humeral external rotation without
straining the soft tissues of the shoulder. Although a relationship between humeral torsion and pain in overhead
athletes has been found (Whiteley et al, 2009; Myers et al, 201), as yet there has been no description of humeral
torsion in cricketers.
Aims: To describe the degree of humeral torsion and its relationship to gleno-humeral joint range of motion and history
of throwing arm pain (TAP) in adolescent cricketers.
Methods: Humeral torsion was measured in 25 players of an ECB National Development Programme (mean 17yrs,
range 15-19yrs). They were assessed at the start of the final camp of the off season training programme. Any history of
TAP in the previous 12 months was recorded. Humeral torsion was assessed via ultrasound scanning by two
physiotherapists. The physiotherapists were blinded to players’ injury history. A paired t-test was used to compare sideto-side torsion and an independent t-test was use to determine differences in humeral torsion between those with and
without a history of TAP. Effect sizes will be calculated for the final paper.
Results: Six of the 25 players (24%) reported TAP in the 12 months prior to assessment. Increased retrotorsion was
found in the dominant arms of elite adolescent cricketers (Mean difference of 11degs +/-11, p < 0.01). This difference
was non-significantly greater in those without a history of TAP compared to those with a history of TAP (No TAP 13degs
+/- 9; TAP 6degs +/- 15, p=0.34).
Discussion and Conclusions: This is the first study to document humeral torsion in cricketers. The findings were similar
to those in other overarm throwing sports (Whiteley et al, 2009). As humeral torsion influences shoulder rotation range
of motion (Chant et al, 2007), it is important to take these torsional changes into account when interpreting rotation
ROM in cricketers with TAP. Whilst there are indications of a protective relationship between humeral torsion and TAP,
further prospective study of the influence of this, along with other risk factors, is warranted.
References:
Whiteley et al (2009) Sports participation and humeral torsion. JOSPT
Myers et al (2011) Humeral retroversion in collegiate baseball pitchers with a history of throwing related upper
extremity injury history. Sport Health
Chant et al (2007) Humeral head retroversion in competitive baseballers and its relationship to glenohumeral joint
rotation range of motion. JOSPT
64
Oral presentations
The impact of throwing arm pain on cricket training and match availability
and performance in elite adolescent cricketers
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
Steve MCCAIG 1, Anna Warren1, Isabel Moore2 , Craig Ranson2
1 Science and Medicine Department ECB, Loughborough, United Kingdom
2 Sports injury Research Group, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, United Kingdom
Background: Throwing arm pain (TAP) is a common cause of injury resulting in time-loss from sports such as youth
baseball (Lyman and Fleisig, 2005). Although TAP rarely causes time loss in cricketers it is known to cause pain and
affect throwing performance in training and matches, and often resulting in players needing to change fielding position
(Ranson and Gregory, 2008). The current definition of a cricket injury only includes injuries that result in unavailability
for match selection; as a consequence the incidence TAP is likely to be under reported. Therefore, whilst suspected to
be significant, the impact of TAP in elite adolescent cricket is unknown.
Aims: To describe the incidence of TAP and its effect on throwing performance in training and matches in elite
adolescent cricketers.
Methods: The squad physiotherapists of a National Development programme that included 35 players (mean age
18yrs) prospectively recorded all injuries that resulted in any time-loss from training or matches; or that resulted in
training modification. For each day of training-camp or tour players were listed as either; unavailable for selection,
available but with some aspect of training modified, or fully available for training and matches. Details of any injury that
resulted in the player being unavailable were recorded. The details of the type and extent of activity modification due
to the injury was also recorded.
Results: 183 injuries (48 time-loss; 135 non-time-loss) were reported by 41 players. Overall injury incidence was 6.9
injuries/100 days and injury prevalence was 12%. There were 17 injuries (9%) relating to TAP and all were non-timeloss. The lower back, medical episodes and hand had the highest injury incidence (1.05, 1.05 and 0.90 injuries/100 days,
respectively). Lower back and knee injuries had the highest injury prevalence (5.9% and 2.0%). TAP had an incidence of
0.64 injuries/100 days. Of the 392 training days modified, 99 (25%) days were due to TAP. Additionally, 5% of the days
where players were injured but able to fully train were due to TAP. On average, players with TAP had modified training
for six days compared to two days for all other injuries.
Discussion and Conclusions: This study is the first to investigate the incidence and prevalence of TAP within an elite
National development programme. Whilst TAP did not result in any days-lost, it accounted for 25% of all training days
that had to be modified even though only 9% were due to TAP.
References:
Lyman and Fleisig (2005). Baseball injuries. In Maffuli and Caine (Eds) Epidemiology of Paediatric Sports Injuries. Team
Sports.
Ranson and Gregory (2008) Shoulder injuries in professional cricketers. PTIS
65
Oral presentations
Musculoskeletal and fitness profiles of elite adolescent cricketers
Steve MCCAIG1, Craig Ranson2, Anna Warren 1
1 Science and Medicine Department, ECB
2 Sports injury Research Group, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, United Kingdom
Background: Descriptive profiles are available for a variety of musculoskeletal variables in numerous overhead sports
(Cools et al, 2010, Hurd et al, 2011a, Hurd et al,2011b, Laudner et al, 2010) . Descriptive studies are useful to provide
normative data for a specific population. This can they be used when assessing injured athletes to determine the
presence of dysfunction and in designing injury prevention programmes. The reliability of musculoskeletal screenings
tools used within cricket has previously been reported (Dacombe et al, 2011, Dennis et al, 2008). However a detailed
description of the profile of an elite adolescent cricketer has not been previously reported.
Aims: To describe the musculoskeletal and fitness profile of adolescent cricketers involved in a national development
programme and compare them to an academy level adolescent cricketers and footballers.
Methods: 23 members of a national cricket development programme were profiled as part of pre-season training
camps prior to the start of the 2014 season. 18 members of a League 1 football academy were profiled prior to the start
of the 2014-15 season. They were profiled on a battery of musculoskeletal profiling tests including anthropometrical
measures, shoulder, hip and ankle range of motion; scapula and thoracic posture, scapula dyskinesis tests and grip
strength.
Results: The cricketer group demonstrated significantly greater total range of shoulder rotation on their dominant side
and non-dominant side (dominant side p=0.03, cricketers 193.8 degs vs. 186.4 degs; non-dominant side p<0.01,
cricketers 194.9 degs vs footballers 178.8 degs). They also had significantly greater shoulder external rotation range
bilaterally (dominant side p< 0.01, cricketers 129, footballers 120; non-dominant side p=0.012, cricketers 117.6,
footballers 108.9). There was no difference between groups on external rotation gain on the dominant shoulder,
however the cricket group had significantly less internal rotation range on their dominant side (p<0.01, cricketers -12.5
degs, footballers -3.7 degs). There was a significant difference between acromion height on the dominant side and nondominant side in cricketers, but not in footballers (p=0.02, cricketers 7.4mm footballers 4.1mm). The cricket group had
grip strength bilaterally (dominant hand p= 0.0001, cricket group 44.2kgs football 36kgs; non-dominant p<0.01, 4.7 kgs
vs.35.7 kgs). The football group had greater total hip rotation on both their dominant and non-dominant sides
compared to the cricket group (dominant side p=0.047, footballers 78.2 degs cricketers 73.2 degs; non-dominant side
p=0.02, footballers 79.9 degs, cricketers 73.9 degs). They had significantly greater hip external rotation range bilaterally
(dominant p=0.047, footballers 43.6 degs vs 38.8 degs; non-dominant side p=0.01, 46.4 degs vs 37.6 degs), however
there was no difference between groups regarding internal rotation range. The cricket group had greater range of ankle
dorsiflexion bilaterally however it did not reach significance (dominant side p =0.06, cricketers 122.3 mms footballers
102.8; non-dominant side p=0.09, 114.9mms vs 100.2).
Discussion and Conclusions: This is the first study to comprehensively describe the musculoskeletal and fitness profile
on an elite adolescent cricketer. This study will provide some normative data on this group of cricketers. This may help
in the development of screening tools and injury prevention programmes for this group of cricketers.
References:
Cools et al (2010) Descriptive profile of scapulothoracic position, strength and flexibility variables in adolescent elite
tennis players. BJSM
Hurd et al (2011a) A Profile of Glenohumeral Internal and External Rotation Motion in the Uninjured High School
Baseball Pitcher, Part I: Motion. JAT
Hurd et al (2011b) A Profile of Glenohumeral Internal and External Rotation Motion in the Uninjured High School
Baseball Pitcher, Part II: Strength. JAT
Laudner et al (2010) Functional hip characteristics of baseball pitchers and position players. AJSM
66
Dacombe et al (2011). A reliability assessment examining the inter- and intraobserver reliability of the current England
and wales cricket board musculoskeletal profiling protocol. BJSM
Dennis et al (2008).The reliability of musculoskeletal screening tests used in cricket. PTIS
67
Oral presentations
Analysis of muscular activity in upper limbs & foot pressure in fast bowlers
to improve performance and prevent injury
Theme: Biomechanics of Technique and Performance
Vikram MHASKAR1, Weijie Wang2, Graham Arnold2, Rami Abboud2
1 Knee & Shoulder Clinic, New Delhi, India, IMAR, Dundee, United Kingdom
2 Institute Of Motion Analysis & Research, Dundee, United Kingdom
Background: There have been no previous studies published in English literature on the muscle contraction patterns of
the upper body and foot pressure analysis in fast bowling. Since increasing ball speed without increasing injury risk is a
primary coaching objective it is important to research on muscle contraction patterns in the upper body and on the
pattern in which fast bowlers land on their feet during the delivery stride to maximise performance and minimise
injury. Hence, the aim of this study was to measure the contraction of individual muscle groups in the upper body via
EMG and identify which of them contract maximally during delivery of the ball and the foot landing patterns during the
delivery stride and how much force/pressure each area of the foot is subjected to during the delivery stride.
Methods: Twenty-two fast bowlers (18-35 years), bowled ten balls with maximum effort using their standard run-up on
®
an indoor 22-yard polyflex pitch. The bowlers were fitted with Delsys Trigno EMG electrodes over the triceps, biceps,
trapezius, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsii, anterior and lateral deltoid muscle groups. A baseline maximum voluntary
®
contraction of each muscle group in each individual subject was obtained before the trials began. Pedar -X insoles were
applied inside in their standardised bowling spiked shoes. The bowlers were fitted with reflective markers at discrete
locations on the upper body and arms and motion capture was done using twelve MX 13 and six T20 cameras using the
®
Vicon 1.7.1 system. Only legal deliveries according to the ICC 2004 regulations were counted. This was determined
®
after doing a 3 D Reconstruction on the software retrospectively. The Pedar -X system was used to collect the pressure
and force data on the delivery stride. Eleven masked areas were created for each foot. The data was analysed for the
most clinically relevant parameters that could co relate with injury namely Peak Pressure Total, Maximum Force Total
and their variations during the cycle, Force Time Integral and Pressure Time Integral. EMG data from the seven muscle
groups of the bowling arm were collected, and expressed as the mean, the maximum and the rooted mean of squared
(RMS) during the delivery phase.
Results: Bowlers had four ways of landing on both their feet, with different parts of the foot coming in contact with the
ground first in both the front and the back foot during delivery stride, namely: 1) the foot as a whole landing on the
ground at once, 2) the heel striking the ground first, c) the forefoot first, or d) the lateral border of the foot first in
various permutations and combinations. In analyzing the front and back foot position, the back foot landed on the
ground with greater force during the delivery stride in all four landing patterns. The group that landed on the foot as a
whole landed with higher maximum force, peak pressure, pressure time integral, and force time integral compared to
those with the other landing patterns. The sequence in which muscle groups fired during the delivery of the ball are
trapezius, anterior deltoid, pectoralis major, biceps, latissimus dorsii, triceps and lastly the lateral deltoid, each
contraction lasting for variable periods during the cycle. The pectoralis major, latissmus dorsii, anterior deltoid and
trapezius muscle groups generated the highest mean absolute maximum values, absolute mean contraction, root mean
square values and longest duration of contraction during the delivery of the ball. The biceps and lateral deltoid had
relatively lower muscle activity in these terms.
Discussion and Conclusions: We found no consistency in the pattern with which the fast bowlers as a whole landed on
their feet during delivery stride, though each fast bowler was consistent in the way he landed on either foot. The most
common landing on the front foot was with the foot as a whole, with no part in specific coming in contact with the
ground first. Pectoralis major, latissimus dorsii, anterior deltoid and trapezius were the major active muscles during
delivery stride.
68
Oral presentations
Can simple technique remediation reduce elbow extension levels in
suspect spin bowlers: A case study
Theme: Novel case Reports
Kane MIDDLETON1,2, Daryl Foster1, Jacqueline Alderson1
1 The University of Western Australia, Western Australia, Australia
2 University of Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia
Aims: The prospect of having to remodel a bowler’s action due to injury potential or legality concerns can be daunting
for any biomechanist, let alone a coach who may only have a basic understanding of biomechanics. The aim of this
study was to highlight the effectiveness of simple technique remediation to reduce the elbow extension level of a
suspect cricket spin bowler.
Methods: One right-handed off-spin bowler (age, height and mass withheld) participated in this study. Threedimensional bowling kinematics were sampled at 250 Hz using a 12-camera VICON Mx motion analysis system (Oxford
Metrics, Oxford, UK) prior to and after a four day technique remediation program. A custom version of the UWA upper
body marker set [1] consisting of 17 12-millimetre retro-reflective markers, was affixed to the right upper limb and
trunk of the participant. The participant bowled one set of six consecutive deliveries for three variations. Vicon Nexus
software (Oxford Metrics, Oxford, U.K.) was used to track, label and complete marker trajectories for each bowling trial.
Data were filtered in Vicon Nexus using a Butterworth low pass filter with a cut-off frequency of 16 Hz. Filtered data
were modelled using custom static and dynamic UWA models [2,3,4] to output upper limb kinematics. The remediation
program primarily focused on foot, hip and shoulder alignment and front arm position in order to reduce the amount of
elbow flexion present at upper arm horizontal. The remediation was completed outdoors on a synthetic cricket practice
wicket. A batsman was not present initially to allow the bowler to focus on his technique, rather than be distracted by
external factors. A batsman was introduced on the final day of remediation to purposefully add an external distraction.
Results: The participant’s elbow flexion-extension angles decreased from 27.3 ± 1.6° to 15.4 ± 2.8° at upper arm
horizontal, 33.0 ± 1.7° to 22.7 ± 1.7° at maximum flexion, 13.5 ± 1.1° to 8.5 ± 0.5° at ball release for a total extension
decrease from 19.5 ± 1.4° to 14.2 ± 1.7°. The angle at upper arm horizontal, maximum flexion angle, angle at ball
release and extension range were reduced by 11.9°, 10.3°, 5.0° and 5.3°, respectively.
Discussion and Conclusions: The results of this study show that the elbow extension level of an illegal spin bowler was
reduced after a short remediation program. Although only one participant was investigated, the results should give
coaches confidence that basic technique remediation using common coaching principles can be effective in reducing
the elbow extension levels of suspect bowlers. Coaches and sport scientists alike should focus on reducing the amount
of elbow flexion at upper arm horizontal as this may lead to reductions in maximum elbow flexion angle, flexion angle
at ball release and total elbow extension.
References:
Chin A et al. Sports Biomech, 8: 187-98, 2009.
Campbell a et al. J Biomech, 42: 1527-32, 2009.
Campbell a et al. Med Biol Eng Comput, 47: 543-50, 2009.
Chin A et al. J Appl Biomech, 26: 305-15, 2010.
69
Oral presentations
Is elbow joint extension the only variable to consider when assessing
suspect bowling actions?
Theme: Umpiring Skills & Cricket Rules
Kane MIDDLETON1,2, Peter Mills3, Bruce Elliott1, Jacqueline Alderson1
1 The University of Western Australia, Western Australia, Australia
2 University of Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia
3 Griffith University, Queensland, Australia
Aims: Elbow joint extension is the only variable used to identify an illegal bowling action in cricket. Very little research
has investigated joint moments to gain a better understanding of their link with elbow extension [1]. The aim of this
study was to characterise the elbow joint moment profiles of semi-professional cricket fast bowlers from the period of
upper arm horizontal to ball release. It is envisaged the outcomes of this study will inform cricket administrators of the
underlying kinetic mechanisms of elbow joint kinematics.
Methods: Nine right-handed fast bowlers (age 21.0 ± 2.2 years, height 1.88 ± 0.04 m and mass 79.2 ± 1.4 kg)
participated in this study. Three-dimensional bowling kinematics from six ‘match intensity’ deliveries were sampled at
250 Hz using a 12-camera VICON Mx motion analysis system. An abridged version of the UWA upper body marker set
consisting of 17 12-millimetre retro-reflective markers was affixed to the trunk and upper limbs. Vicon Nexus software
was used to track, label, complete and filter marker trajectories (20 Hz Butterworth low pass filter) for each bowling
trial. Data were filtered in Vicon Nexus using a Butterworth low pass filter with a cut-off frequency of 20 Hz. Filtered
data were modelled using custom static and dynamic UWA models [2,3,4] to output elbow joint flexion-extension angle
with moments calculated using a ‘top-down’ inverse dynamics approach. The ball was treated as an additional segment
in the modeling process with specified mass and inertial properties.
-1
Results: The participants released the ball with an average speed of 31.3 ± 1.0 m·s . Seven of the nine bowlers flexed to
release (flexors) with the other two bowlers extending to release (extenders). Elbow joint angle at upper arm horizontal
was 7.9 ± 7.4° for the flexors and 17.4 ± 3.2° for the extenders. The flexors had a minimum elbow joint angle of 0.6 ±
7.7° whereas the extenders had a maximum angle of 23.4 ± 5.4°. Elbow joint angle at ball release was 12.5 ± 4.6° for the
flexors and 17.7 ± 8.6° for the extenders. The flexors had a total flexion displacement of 11.9 ± 5.5° whereas the
extenders had a total extension displacement of 5.7 ± 3.3°. All nine participants exhibited an internal flexion moment
from upper arm horizontal to ball release (mean 39.2 ± 11.3 Nm; peak 80.5 ± 31.4 Nm).
Discussion and Conclusions: The flexion moment displayed by all bowlers suggests that they were actively attempting
to flex the elbow during the delivery swing and/or minimise extension due to inertial loading. The results of this study
support the notion that there may a positive relationship between arm speed and elbow extension. Future research
should focus on a triad of elbow flexion-extension, arm speed and joint in relation to suspect bowling actions. This may
allow for a more thorough understanding of the mechanisms that underpin elbow joint flexion-extension and could
inform the development of more robust rules and regulations in relation to suspect bowling actions.
References:
Ferdinands R.E.D. et al. Int J Sports Sci Eng, 36: 211-15, 2008
Chin A et al. Sports Biomech, 8: 187-98, 2009
Campbell a et al. J Biomech, 42: 1527-32, 2009
Chin A et al. J Appl Biomech, 26: 305-15, 2010
70
Oral presentations
Case studies: Developing mental conditioning practices for elite cricketers
Gareth J. MOLE1
1 Condor Performance, Sport & Performance Psychologists
Sport psychology (the field of study) and sport psychologists (the profession) both face similar challenges in Australia as
they do internationally in relation to cricket and other sports. There are two major challenges that need to be
addressed. First, the words psychologist and psychology have deep rooted associations in the minds of most people
with mental illness. The public tend to perceive that sports psychologists work with coaches and athletes with a mental
illness. This is resolved by surveying clients with the DASS (Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale) inventory. If normal or
higher DASS scores are registered, then resources can be invested on improving the mental toughness/mental aspects
of athletic performance. Second, there is inadequate mental skills training in coaching education. Once mental illness
has been ruled out, then the people that have the largest impact on player mental toughness are the coaches.
However, in many instances, in countries where official coaching education pathways exist, psychological skills training
(PST) is either an afterthought or simply absent. One approach to resolve this is for sport psychologists to work
indirectly with athletes by liaising directly with their coaches [1,2]. In a typical case, the education of a cricket coach
seeking to gain proficiency in mental skills training could, for instance, spend several months focusing on short
performance routines such as pre-batting and pre-bowling routines. Certain sports, that contain predictable closed or
close to closed skills, benefit from starting with the specific mental elements that will have the greatest impact before
moving onto other mental methods [3]. This could be followed by goal setting. The practice of adopting SMART goals
only is considered out of date, so the emphasis is laid on setting seasonal and monthly outcome goals before devolving
weekly effort [4]. In practice, coaches have reported this approach to significantly improve the focus of their athletes.
Sometimes there is a misconception on which aspects of cricket are in reality controllable, a problem that is resolved by
putting the coach through a simulated game situation [5]. Often even the most fundamental coaching errors need to be
addressed, that of supplying too much feedback to the players [Summary/discussion: With a wealth of scientific
knowledge on how to improve the mental aspects of cricketers of all levels and ages available yet still so few benefiting
from this information decision makers and stakeholders involved in cricket all around the work need to review a)
coaching education pathways and b) how the cricket industry perceives sport psychologists and other mental
conditioning experts.
References:
Blom, L. C., Watson II, J. C., & Spadaro, N. (2010). The Impact of a Coaching Intervention on the Coach-Athlete Dyad and
Athlete Sport Experience. Athletic Insight. The Online Journal of Sport Psychology, 12(3).
Moen, F. (2010). Coaching and Performance Psychology. Department of Education, Norwegian University of Science
and Technology, NTNU, Doctoral dissertation.
Otto, J., Gentner, N., Czech, D., Burdette, T., & Biber, D. (2014). Baseball Pitchers Pre-Performance. Mission of the
Journal of Excellence, 16, 84.
Trejo, B. (2014). The Commitment of Separate Goal Setting Situations With Collegiate Athletes (Doctoral dissertation,
Texas Tech University).
Bal, B. S., Singh, B., & Singh, O. (2010). Achievement motivation and locus of control of university level individual and
team sport players-A prognostic study. Journal of Physical Education and Sports management, 1(3), 33-36.
Miller, G. A. (1956). "The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing
information". Psychological Review 63(2): 81–97.
71
Oral presentations
Three-year cricket injury surveillance: fast bowlers are the biggest injury
burden
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
Stephen MOUNT1, Craig Ranson2 , Isabel Moore2
1 Sri Lanka Cricket
2 Sports injury Research Group, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, United Kingdom
Background: There are few injury surveillance studies within international cricket, with Australia the only team to
recently report longitudinal data (Orchard et al. 2010). with other reports focusing on specific periods, such as a single
tournament (Ranson et al. 2013). There is a clear need for on-going year-round international cricket surveillance in
order to identify and inform management of priority injury problems within the game.
Aims: To investigate injury rates, types, severity and risk factors within longitudinal injury surveillance data of an
international cricket squad.
Methods: Prospective injury surveillance of all players selected for one national team squad over three years (2011 to
2014). Data collection was based on consensus methods (Orchard et al. 2005) although both time-loss injuries (defined
as a player being considered unavailable for match selection on any given day) and non time-loss injuries (injuries
requiring medical attention but not resulting in the player being considered unavailable for selection) were included.
Injury incidence was calculated as either injuries per 100 days or injuries per 1000 match hours. 95% confidence
intervals were used to determine significant differences in injury incidence.
Results: 39 players sustained 286 injuries with 189 (66%) being non-time-loss, and 97 (34%) time-loss. Non time-loss
injuries had a significantly higher incidence than time-loss injuries (17.8 vs. 9.1/100 days). Gradual onset injuries had a
significantly higher injury incidence than sudden onset, impact or insidious injuries (13.4 vs. 7.6, 5.6 and 0.2/100 days
respectively). Approximately half (48%) of the gradual onset injuries were sustained by fast bowlers, with slow bowlers
and batters sustaining a quarter of the injuries each (26 and 24%, respectively). The injuries with the highest non timeloss incidence were to the ankle (3.0/100 days) and the knee (2.4/100 days), and the body areas with highest time-loss
incidence were the hand (1.6/100 days) and knee (0.9/100). Lower back and ankle injuries had the highest injury
prevalence (2.1 and 1.7%, respectively), and along with abdominal injuries (mainly side-strains) were also the most
severe (63, 45 and 44 days-lost per injury respectively). There was a higher incidence of match time-loss injuries (6/100
days) than training time-loss injuries (2.7/100 days). Fast bowlers had a significantly higher match time-loss injury
incidence than any other position (3.23/1000 hours), in addition to having the highest injury prevalence (4%). Although
wicket-keepers had a very low incidence, they sustained the most severe match injuries (average of 45 days-lost per
injury).
Discussion and Conclusions: The majority of injuries sustained by cricketers are non time-loss and gradual onset. Whilst
these may not always lead to days-lost, it is likely that many will have caused training modification and impaired cricket
performance. Fast bowlers have a greater chance of sustaining gradual onset injuries and time-loss injuries, as well as
contributing more to days unavailable, than any other position. Therefore, injury prevention and management
strategies should target these players. Monitoring and adjusting bowling workload (Hulin et al. 2014), along with
identifying and tackling musculo-skeletal (range or motion and strength deficits) known to be associated with priority
injury problems are recommended within an injury prevention strategy.
References:
Orchard, J. et al. (2010). Changes to injury profile (and recommended cricket injury definitions) based on the increased
frequency of Twenty20 cricket matches. Open Access J Sports Med.
Ranson, C. et al. (2013). International cricket injury surveillance: a report of five teams competing in the ICC Cricket
World Cup 2011. Br J Sports Med.
Orchard, J. et al. (2005). Methods for injury surveillance in international cricket. Br J Sports Med.
72
Hulin, B. T. et al (2014). Spikes in acute workload are associated with increased injury risk in elite cricket fast bowlers. Br
J Sports Med.
73
Oral presentations
Bowlers are at greater risk of sustaining ‘related', subsequent injuries than
batters or wicket-keepers
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
Stephen MOUNT1, Isabel Moore2 , Craig Ranson2
1 Sri Lanka Cricket
2 Sports injury Research Group, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, United Kingdom
Background: Longitudinal injury surveillance may provide valuable information regarding relationships between initial
and subsequent injuries. Subsequent Injury Categorisation (SIC) (Finch & Cook, 2013) has been proposed as a method
for examining these relationships. Initial work applying the SIC to longitudinal injury surveillance data has been
presented (Mount, Moore & Ranson, 2014), but position-specific differences in SIC have not been considered.
Aims: To apply SIC to longitudinal injury surveillance data of an international cricket squad and assess position-specific
(e.g. fast bowler, slow bowler, batter and wicket-keeper) differences in SIC.
Methods: Prospective injury surveillance of all players selected for one national team squad over three years (2011 to
2014) using consensus methods (Orchard et al. 2005). Data was coded using the SIC (Finch & Cook, 2013).
Results: 286 injuries were sustained by 39 players, with 26% (10) of players sustaining only one injury. Fast bowlers
sustained the majority of the injuries (43%), followed by the batters (28%), slow bowlers (27%) and wicket-keepers
(2%). Of the subsequent injuries, 31% were coded as being related to a previous injury and 12% were a recurrence. The
majority of initial injuries were non-time-loss (76%), as were the majority (88%) of injuries coded as 4
(continual/sporadic experiences of pain related to index injury). All subsequent injuries to wicket-keepers were to
different body parts (codes 9 and 10), compared to 84% for batters, 76% for slow bowlers and 70% for fast bowlers. A
greater proportion of the subsequent injuries sustained by fast and slow bowlers were related to a previous injury
(codes 2, 3, 4, 7 and 9) compared to batsman (35, 31 and 26% respectively). Additionally, bowlers (fast and slow) lost
twice as many days per injury for related injuries as batsman (18 vs. 9 days, respectively). Furthermore, a greater
proportion of subsequent injuries sustained by fast bowlers were the exact same injury, both in terms of body area and
nature (codes 2, 3, 4) compared to batters, slow bowlers and wicket-keepers (15% vs. 9%, 9% and 0% respectively).
Discussion and Conclusions: Applying the SIC model to the injury data highlighted the importance of recording non
time-loss cricket injuries, as recording only time-loss injuries would have meant the majority of the initial injuries would
have been missed. Bowlers appear to be at the greatest risk of sustaining an injury related to a previous injury, with
such subsequent injuries being twice as severe as those sustained by batsman. It is conceivable that the specific
movement pattern and repetitive nature of bowling places bowlers at a greater risk. Further research is required to
investigate whether this risk is related to match and training workload. Wicket-keepers however, who in general sustain
relatively few injuries, are likely to suffer new, unrelated injuries each time. Within cricket, position-specific differences
exist in the types of subsequent injuries sustained. This information can inform injury prevention and management
strategies by identifying those at greatest risk of sustaining recurrent injuries.
References:
Finch, C., & Cook, J. (2013). Categorising sports injuries in epidemiology studies: the subsequent injury categorisation
(SIC) model to address multiple, recurrent and exacerbation injuries. BJSM
Mount, S., Moore, I. S., & Ranson, C. (2014). Injury types and rates in an international cricket team: Application of
subsequent injury categorisation. BJSM
Orchard, J. et al. (2005). Methods for injury surveillance in international cricket. BJSM
74
Oral presentations
Daily exposure during one-year of international cricket
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
Stephen MOUNT1, Isabel Moore2 , Craig Ranson2
1 Sri Lanka Cricket
2 Sports injury Research Group, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, United Kingdom
Background: Currently cricket exposure is typically measured for bowlers, by recording the number of overs or balls
they deliver in matches and training (Hulin et al. 2014; Saw et al. 2011). However, the daily exposure in regards to
whether they are training, playing matches or having days off would give exposure details for the whole squad, and
could be used to calculate injury incidence during longitudinal injury surveillance, e.g. injuries per 100 training days.
Aims: To describe daily exposure and seasonal variation in intensity of match and training scheduling during one-year of
international cricket.
st
Methods: One support staff member for an international cricket team recorded the daily activity from 1 April 2013 to
st
31 March 2014. The predominant activity for each day was defined as; match, training, or off. Match days were further
defined as; test, one-day internationals (ODI), twenty-20 (T20) or warm-up matches. Additionally, information
regarding whether an entire training or match day was cancelled due to the weather (‘washed out’) was recorded.
Results: Match days accounted for 20% (74) of total days, with 18% (65) designated as training days and the rest of the
days (62%) being listed as ‘off’. Of the match days, the majority were ODIs (40%), followed by test days (32%), T20s
(18%) and warm-up matches (10%). Overall, only 2% of the training and match days were ‘washed out’. January and
February had the greatest proportion of match days in a month (58 and 43%, respectively), whereas both September
and October had no match days.
Discussion and Conclusions: This study provides the first attempt to record annual cricket exposure according to the
predominant daily activity. In contrast to more complex methods such as balls bowled per player, or arbitrary units of
exposure (RPE x minutes) (Hulin et al. 2014), this simple methodology could be applied in the majority of international
cricket settings. There were slightly fewer training days than match days, with only a small proportion of designated
training and match days being ‘washed out’. It is likely that the proportion of ‘washed out’ days will vary slightly based
on seasonal weather fluctuations, but initial appears to have a negligible effect. Whilst only a small proportion of match
days were attributed to T20s, further work is required to investigate injury rates in combination with such daily
exposure. Mapping daily cricket exposure could be a simple way of collecting exposure data, which may allow simple
analysis of workload related injury risk. That information could inform match and training day scheduling with a view to
reducing injury risk and maximizing performance.
References:
Hulin, B. T. et al (2014). Spikes in acute workload are associated with increased injury risk in elite cricket fast bowlers.
BJSM
Saw, R. et al. (2011). Throwing workload and injury risk in elite cricketers. BJSM
75
Oral presentations
Fast bowler match and training workload patterns during international
cricket
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
Stephen MOUNT1, Isabel Moore2 , Craig Ranson2
1 Sri Lanka Cricket
2 Sports injury Research Group, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, United Kingdom
Background: International fast bowlers have relatively high injury risk within cricket (Ranson et al. 2013). One
modifiable risk factor that has been identified is bowling workload, with acute spikes in workload showing increased
short term (Hulin et al. 2014) and delayed (Orchard,et al, 2009) injury risk. However, previous fast bowling workload
studies have been limited to domestic cricket, meaning match and training workload patterns of international fast
bowlers are unknown.
Aims: To describe the international series match and training workload patterns of fast bowlers and to investigate
associations between bowling workload and injury occurrence.
Methods: One support staff member from an international cricket team recorded the number of match and training
th
th
balls delivered by each fast bowler within international series squads from 7 December 2011 to 24 June 2014. To be
included in the analysis, fast bowlers had to be involved in a minimum of three series during the two and half year
period and must have played in at least one match during each series. Bowling workload during the preparation phase
(date of first training session to the day before the first match in the series) and match phase (date of the first to last
match of the series) were recorded. Additionally, dates of injury occurrence were also recorded for each fast bowler.
The number of days during which each player spent in; practice matches; Twenty 20 (T20); One Day Internationals
(ODIs); Test matches and training were also recorded.
Results: Test matches, ODIs and practice matches had the highest mean workload per day (56, 49 and 45 balls
respectively), compared to training (33) and T20 (22). In total there were more balls delivered and days spent bowling
during training (29,700 balls and 902 days), with the fewest during T20 matches (2,669 balls and 103 days) and practice
matches (2,669 balls and 59 days). Test matches had the greatest incidence (8 injuries/100 player-days), followed by
T20 matches (7/100 player-days), practice matches (5/100 player-days), ODI (4/100 player-days) and training (2/100
player-days). There was no significant difference between rolling weekly workload on the day injury occurred and on
days when there was no injury sustained (21.6 vs. 22.1 balls).
Discussion and Conclusions: The study is the first to describe training and match workload patterns of fast bowlers
during all forms of international cricket. There were relatively few days spent on practice matches, yet they had a high
workload per session and average injury incidence. Whilst more days were spent training, they had a low workload per
session and injury incidence. However, no difference was found between rolling weekly workload on days when an
injury was sustained and on days when there was no injury. Several difficulties in assessing workload whilst players are
on international duty were apparent. For example, workloads were unavailable when players were not playing
international cricket and therefore current chronic workload definition (28 day rolling average) could not be used.
Future long-term studies investigating bowling workload should use multiple teams and develop appropriate analysis
techniques for international cricket.
References:
Ranson, C. et al (2013). International cricket injury surveillance: a report of five teams competing in the ICC Cricket
World Cup 2011. British Journal of Sports Medicine.
Hulin, B. T. et al (2014). Spikes in acute workload are associated with increased injury risk in elite cricket fast bowlers.
British Journal of Sports Medicine.
Orchard, J., et al (2009). Fast bowlers in cricket demonstrate up to 3- 4-week delay between high workloads and
increased risk of injury. The American journal of sports medicine.
76
Oral presentations
Individual differences in expert visuomotor skill in cricket batting
John Brenton1, Sean MÜLLER1, Alasdair Dempsey1, Allen Harbaugh2
1 School of Psychology and Exercise Science, Murdoch University, Perth, Australia
2 School of Education, Boston University, USA
Aims: This study combined sport expertise [1] and sport biomechanics [2] methods to investigate individual differences
in expert visuomotor skill in cricket batting.
Methods: Elite cricket batsmen (n=8) and elite bowlers of state cricket level were recruited from the Western
Australian Cricket Association. Previously validated methodologies were used to present visual information and
measure action [1,3]. Batsmen faced different ball types (of full and short lengths) randomly delivered by the bowlers in
a laboratory. The batsmen wore a pair of vision occlusion glasses that were used to selectively occlude their vision: (i)
prior to ball bounce (providing vision of the bowler’s action and ball flight, but not ball bounce and post-bounce
information), and (ii) complete vision of the delivery (control condition). Batsmen stood on force plates and executed
their batting stroke, which was captured by high-speed cameras sampling at 200 frames per second. Under each of the
vision conditions, the following action timing variables were measured: (a) initiation of weight transfer, (b) completion
of weight transfer, (c) initiation of bat downswing and (d) duration of bat downswing, from the point of ball release.
Quality of interception was also recorded as, ‘good’, ‘bad’ or ‘no’ bat-ball contacts.
Results: There was no significant difference in the timing measures across the vision conditions so further analysis was
focused upon the occlusion condition. Significant individual differences were found between some batsmen, but not
others, in each of the timing measures in the occlusion condition (p < .05). No significant individual differences,
however, were found between batsmen in the frequency of bat-ball contacts (‘good’ and ‘bad’) and ‘no’ contacts in the
occlusion condition.
Discussion and Conclusions: There are some individual differences in the visuomotor striking coordination pattern of
elite cricket batsmen. Some elite batsmen appear to use different coordination patterns to other batsmen in order to
position their bat to strike a ball, like other motor skills such as reaching to a target [4]. The implication to science and
coaching in cricket is that more than one coordination pattern is suitable to strike a ball. How the information from this
study can be useful to the individual athlete and coach will be discussed.
References:
Müller, S., et al., An in-situ examination of the timing of information pick-up for interception by cricket batsmen of
different skill levels. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 2009. 10(6): p. 644-652.
Katsumata, H., A functional modulation for timing a movement: A coordinative structure in baseball hitting. Human
Movement Science, 2007. 26(1): p. 27-47.
Müller, S., et al., Pick-up of early visual information to guide kinetics and kinematics within a group of expert baseball
batters. Perceptual and Motor Skills, in press.
Mattos, D., et al., Motor equivalence (ME) during reaching: Is ME observable at the muscle level? Motor Control, 2013.
17(2): p. 145-175.
77
Oral presentations
Finding similar/outlier players in cricket
Theme: Statistical Approaches In Cricket
Chandrasiri NAIWALA PATHIRANNNEHELAGE1
1 Kogakuin University, Tokyo, Japan
Aims: How is a cricket player’s overall performance measured? There are multiple variables that should be considered
in the process. For an ODI batsman, performance variables include total runs scored, batting averages, strike rates and
number of 100s or 50s scored etc. In this research, we focus on analyzing player performances using multidimensional
variables. Our aim is to represent multidimensional cricket performance variables that have different characteristics
together in the same framework and find similar/outlier players in cricket. It will help in analyzing player performances
deeply and take important decisions regarding the characteristics and the value of a player. We present a visualization
method of players with similar performances in terms of proximity on a graph. We also explain a method to find
outliers; players who have distinctive performance statistics in cricket.
Methods: For processing of multidimensional data, we use Principle Components Analysis (PCA) that can represent
data effectively. As different variables such as batting averages and strike rates vary in different ranges and have
different distributions, as a preprocessing method, Z score normalization is applied to the data. By projecting data
points of cricket players in lower dimension (2D or 3D) using PCA, we can explore players with similar performances in
terms of their overall statistics. Here we use distance/angle based similarity measures in multidimensional data space.
We extract players with similar performances using k-nearest neighbor algorithm in PCA space. We also can extract
players who have distinctive performance statistics in cricket using outlier detection methods. A Euclidean distance
based method is proposed and it is compared with an existing method.
Results: By projecting multidimensional cricket statistics data onto lower dimensions using PCA, we could explore
player performances on 2D and 3D graphs. We constructed a Graphical User Interface that can interactively find players
with similar performance statistics in proximities on a graph. In the graphs, players who have distinctive statistics are
appeared in the outer space and by using outlier detection methods we could extract them.
Example: By analyzing batsmans who have scored more than 5000 runs in ODI games up to today, 94% of the variances
of the data could be captured by top 4 principal components (eigen value( ) > 1, [1]) using 11 variables. In this case,
top 10 outlier players using a Euclidean distance methods are SR Tendulkar, ST Jayasuriya, Shahid Afridi, RT Ponting,
DPMD Jayawardene, KC Sangakkara, Inzamam-ul-Haq, V Kohli, MG Bevan and JH Kallis. By comparing our results with
an existing method that only uses first principal component in performance analysis [2], the proposed method can
capture, similar or outlier players taking more multiple perspectives into account.
Discussion and Conclusions: In this research we presented a method for finding similar/outlier players in cricket using
multidimensional cricket performance data. We could explore players who have similar performance statistics on 2D
and 3D graphs. We also could find statistically distinctive players. Tools we have developed can be useful for comparing
player performances intuitively. It may help in selecting different type of players to make a resourceful cricket team.
References:
Kaiser, H., “The application of electronic computers to factor analysis,” Educational and Psychological Measurement,
20, pp.141-151, 1960.
A.B.W.Manage, S.M.Scariano, C.R.Hallum, “Performance analysis of T20-World Cup Cricket 2012, Sri Lankan Journal of
Applied Statistics,” Vol.14,No.1, pp.1-12, 2013.
78
Oral presentations
Physiotherapy screening and pre habilitation for the biomechanical
requirements of fast bowling
Arjan NALLIAH1, René E.D Ferdinands 2, B Kumarendran3
1 Sri Lanka Cricket, Colombo, Sri Lanka
2 Physical Therapy Health Group, Wollongong, Australia, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
3 University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka
Introduction: During the last 50-Over World Cup in 2011, injuries suffered predominantly were during the delivery
stride during fast bowling, which resulted in by far the greatest loss of playing time. The highest incidence was thigh
strains, and ankle sprains (Ranson et al 2013). The high incidence is likely to be caused by the higher mean forces at
front foot impact during the delivery stride.
Aims: To estimate the predisposition of lower limb injuries among players from Sri Lanka National Team and the A
Team.
Methods: Thirty players from the Sri Lanka Cricket National Team and A Team were screened by a physiotherapist using
evidenced based and clinical assessments for the predisposition to injuries in January 2012. The screening protocol was
developed by the former National Team Physiotherapist. Thirty players were screened using 62 assessment
procedures, of which 28 were lower limb. The assessment included recording information on current injuries and
management, past injuries and previous physiotherapy, medical conditions/medications and vaccination and previous
findings. For each player the physiotherapy screening is usually one hour in duration.
Results and Discussion: Seven of the 28 lower limb assessments were analyzed and discussed relating their relationship
to the requirements of fast bowling biomechanics. Nineteen of 30 players showed a Trendelenburg posture during
single leg squat. During the Thomas Test fifteen out of 27 players had hip flexion angle less than 45 degrees. A positive
Tredelenburg and/or Thomas Test could lead to knee Patello Femoral Pain Syndrome. Thirteen of 25 players had knee
to wall measurement less than 12 cm, because of decreased ankle dorsifilexion. A decreased ankle dorsiflexion is a risk
factor for a range of lower limb injuries (Denise et al 2008). Single leg calf raise of greater than 25 repetitions is graded
as normal, which correlates with a reduced lower limb injury rates (Lunsford and Perry 1995). Three of seven players
assessed had insufficient calf strength. Seven of 30 players showed a hamstring length of less than 90 degrees. Elliott et
al (2005) suggested that players with poor hamstring flexibility or lower back flexibility were usually associated with
inter-vertebral disc abnormality. There is a clinical correlation that correct recruitment pattern of gluteus maximus
relative to hamstrings and erectors, reducing lower back stiffness. Four out of 30 of players assessed had incorrect
recruitment pattern. Five out of twelve fast bowlers assessed had hip internal rotation more than 40 degrees on the
ipsilateral leg. It has also been proposed that increased hip internal rotation is associated with an increased risk of noncontact knee injury (Denise et al 2008).
Conclusions and Recommendation: The screening protocol with eccentric muscles strength test for the quadriceps and
hamstrings will make a screening protocol more effective before a condensed tournament such as the World Cup. Risk
factor such as muscle imbalance should be thoroughly addressed during rehabilitation.
References:
Dennis, R.J., Finch, C.F., McIntrosh, A.S. & Elliott, B. K. (2008). Use of field-based test to identify risk factors for injury to
fast bowlers in cricket. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 42: 477-482.
Elliott, B., Plunkett, D., & Alderson, J. (2005). The effect of altered pitch length on performance and technique in junior
fast bowlers. Journal of Sport Sciences. 23: 661-667.
Lunsford, B. R. & Perry, J. (1995). The Standing Heel-Raise Test for Ankle Plantar Flexion: Criterion for Normal. Physical
Therapy. 75: 694-698.
Ranson, C., R. Hurley, Rugless, L., Mansingh, A. & Cole J. (2013). International cricket injury surveillance: a report of five
teams competing in the ICC Cricket World Cup 2011. British Journal of Sports Medicine 47(10): 637-643.
79
Oral presentations
Association between transferrin saturation and fast bowling speed and
fitness
Arjan NALLIAH1, René E.D Ferdinands 2, B Kumarendran3
1 Sri Lanka Cricket, Colombo, Sri Lanka
2 Physical Therapy Health Group, Wollongong, Australia, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
3 University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka
Aims: To investigate the association between transferrin saturation (TSAT) levels and fast bowling speed and fitness of
cricket players.
Methods: Serum iron, TSAT, hemoglobin, total iron binding capacity (and serum protein) of the players from men’s and
women’s teams were measured from an ISO accredited laboratory. Fast bowling speed was measured using Stalker Pro
II Baseball Radar Gun during net sessions at Max Cricket Academy, Sri Lanka among 21 fast bowlers of Fast Bowling
Academy, Sri Lanka A team and one fast bowler from the Test team. A minimum of eight deliveries were used to
determine an average fast bowling speed. Thirteen Women’s National Team player’s fitness was measured using the
highest beep score after three trials in the indoor nets at Nondescriptives Cricket Club.
Results: The median baseline bowling speed was 120 km/h [Interquartile range (IQR): 118 to 124 km]. The median TSAT
was 28 % (IQR: 24 to 32%). Regression analysis showed, one unit increase in TSAT may increase the bowling speed by
0.27 km/h. A follow up of nine fast bowlers after one week of iron supplementation showed an average improvement
of fast bowling speed by 5.2 km/h. No further improvement in bowling speed was recorded after one week in the men’s
teams. A case study of four fast bowlers from women’s national team reported no speed change in bowling after one
week of iron supplementation. Median beep score of women’s team was 9 (IQR: 8 to 10) and median TSAT was 16%
(IQR: 8 to 30%). Baseline data from the Women’s team showed, one unit increase in TSAT may increase the beep fitness
score by 0.084% (P value = 0.05). The TSAT would explain the 49% of the variation of beep score.
Discussion and Conclusions: There has been mixed findings on the influence of iron status on mechanical efficiency
(Crouter 2012). The current study, the baseline data showed a 0.27 km/h in fast bowling speed for every one unit
increase in Transferrin Saturation. There is potential to increase bowling speed as the majority of fast bowlers tested
reported a Transferrin Saturation of 20-30 out of 50. The case study follow up of the fast bowlers reported 5.20 km/h
after seven days of iron supplementation, with no further increase or decrement in bowling speed after seven days
when measured up to eight weeks with continued supplementation. Smaller sample size can also another explanation
for the not being able to get a significant difference. Research carried out in women by Dellavalle and Haas (2014)
report improvement in anaerobic fitness and muscle mass after six weeks of iron supplementation of 10% and 1.2 kg
respectively. The data on the men’s fast bowlers showed mixed data on muscle mass changes possibly because of the
different work loads of the fast bowler belonging to the different first class teams.
References:
Crouter, S.E., Della Valle, M., Haas, J.H. (2012). Relationship between physical activity, physical performance, and iron
status in adult women. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism. 37: 697-705.
Dellavalle, D.M. and Haas, J.D. (2014). Iron Supplementation Improves Energetic Efficiency in Iron-Depleted Female
Rowers. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise. 46(6):1204-15.
Johnston, J.A. and Ford, P.A. (2010) Physiological Profile of Professional Cricketers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning
Research. 24(11): 2900 – 2907.
80
Oral presentations
A qualitative review of backlift batting techniques of successful cricket
batsmen in the last century
Theme: Biomechanics of Technique and Performance
Habib NOORBHAI1,2, Timothy Noakes2
1 Department of Sport Management, Faculty of Business, Cape Peninsula University of Technology,
South Africa
2 Division of Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health
Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa
Aims: A fundamental principle of cricket batting is to play with a straight bat, in opposition to the natural way of
1,2
swinging a bat on an inclined plane . Previous research has not examined whether there are differences in the lateral
or modern backlift batting techniques among international batsmen. Batsmen in the previous era adopted the lateral
backlift batting technique, whereas the modern backlift batting technique shows the straight bat and backlift over the
stumps. Therefore, the aim of this review is to examine backlift batting techniques and to provide an insight of
successful batsmen in the last century.
Methods: This is a descriptive, observational research study in which analytical research methods were employed. For
the purpose of this study, successful batsmen were those who predominantly adopted the lateral backlift batting
technique. In addition, batsmen who achieved the following were the defining criteria for selection:
i)
A career average of more than 55% of runs scored
ii)
A career average of more than 50% of runs scored with more than 2000 career test runs
iii)
Over 6000 runs scored in their career
4
Cricinfo was utilized to identify successful batsmen (n = 40) with the highest test career averages and runs. Video
footage of all successful batsmen were categorised into past or present eras in the last century (1895 – 1954, top 20;
1955 – 2014, top 20). The motivation behind the segregation of these time frames is due to the evolving coaching
5
manuals in the 1900’s. The revised edition of the MCC coaching manual was established in 1952 and therefore all
batsmen were categorised prior to or after 1952.
Results: Overall, 80% of all cricket players (n = 40) between 1895 and 2014 adopted the lateral backlift batting
technique. This review showed that more than 75% of successful batsmen adopted the lateral backlift batting
technique and clearly shows the distinct difference in success between those batsmen adopting various backlift batting
techniques.
Discussion and Conclusions: The findings of this study clearly show the distinct differences in success between those
batsmen who happen to have adopted the lateral or modern backlift batting techniques. Future research is required to
further explore the batting techniques administered by batsmen at various levels of cricket. Furthermore, it is
important to establish the differences in batting techniques among cricket players in different countries as this will
outline the varied factors, skills of bowlers and playing conditions associated with the success of a batsman’s technique
and career.
References:
Fry CB (1920). Cricket: Batsmanship. London: Eveleigh Nash
Shillinglaw T, Hale (2009). Bradman Revisited 2nd Edition 'The Simplicity of Nature'
ESPN Cricinfo. http://www.espncricinfo.com. Accessed on: 1 August 2014
The MCC (1952). The M.C.C. Cricket Coaching Book. The Naldrett Press
81
Oral presentations
An analysis of kinetic chain exercises in relation to quadriceps angles
among injured adolescent cricketers in Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
Habib NOORBHAI1
1 University of Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa
Aims: There has been limited research showing the effects of kinetic chain exercises in relation to quadriceps angles
among injured athletes. The objective of this retrospective, epidemiological study was to analyse the effects of open
versus closed kinetic chain exercises in relation to quadriceps angles among injured adolescent cricketers in Kwa-Zulu
Natal, South Africa.
Methods: Participants were required to complete a self-report musculoskeletal questionnaire probing the prevalence
of cricket-related musculoskeletal pain within the 12 months and in addition, subjects’ quadriceps angles were
measured. The significance was set at p≤0.05.
Results: One hundred and eighty eight subjects (80.34%) experienced cricket-related musculoskeletal pain (p < 0.0001).
The prevalence of cricket-related musculoskeletal pain specific to the various anatomical sites were mostly knee
(29.79%) and lower back (28.72%). The subjects who experienced knee pain had abnormal Q-angles (right knee–12.71o;
left knee–11.19o) (p < 0.0001) which further precipitated their risk of injury at the knee joint. The knee was the most
common anatomical joint site of pain, and therefore kinetic chain exercises were used to interpret these findings
among the injured adolescent cricket players.
Discussion and Conclusions: In open-kinetic-chain knee extension exercise, the flexion moment increases as the knee
o
extends from 90 of flexion to full extension (mainly in wicket-keepers) which increases the tension in the quadriceps
and patellar tendon. Therefore, the patellofemoral (PF) joint reaction forces are increased in batsmen when propelling
o
forward with peak force occurring at 36 of joint flexion. Similarly, as the knee moves towards full extension when
batsmen propel backwards and when bowlers land at the popping crease, the PF contact area decreases which causes
increased contact stress per unit area. In closed-kinetic-chain exercise, the flexion moment also increases as the knee
flexes which causes increased tension in the quadriceps and patellar tendon and therefore an increase in PF joint
reaction forces.
Closed-kinetic-chain exercises might be better tolerated in cricketers because contact stress is minimized. Cricket
players’ mostly adopting closed-kinetic chain exercises during training have a reduced chance of sustaining any pain or
injuries.
References:
Prentice WE. Rehabilitation Techniques for Sports Medicine and Athletic Training, 5th ed. New York: The McGraw Hill
Company 2011:47-92.
Noorbhai MH, Essack FM, Thwala S. Prevalence of cricket-related musculoskeletal pain among adolescent cricketers in
Kwa-Zulu Natal. SAJSM: 2012; 4(1): 3 – 9.
Escamilla RF, Fleisig GS, Zheng N. Biomechanics of the knee during closed kinetic chain and open kinetic chain exercises.
J Med & Sci in Sports and Ex, 1988; 30(4): 556-569
Finch C, Elliott BC, McGrath AC. Measures to prevent cricket injuries: An overview. Sports Med, 1999; 28 (4): 263 – 272
82
Oral presentations
Cricket pace bowling, ball release speed and injury prevention: a balancing
act?
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
Benita OLIVIER1, Aimee V Stewart1, Andrew C Green2, Warrick McKinon2
1 Department of Physiotherapy, School of Therapeutic Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences,
University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
2 School of Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg,
South Africa
Aims: “An ‘optimal’ pace bowling technique could be defined as one that allows the bowler to bowl fast with a
relatively low injury risk”.(1) Although bowling related kinematic studies have focussed on the association between
spinal and knee kinematics, and low back injury these studies have not investigated injuries sustained in the lower
quarter as a whole - lower back injuries in combination with comorbid lower limb injury.(2-4) Furthermore, the rarity of
longitudinal studies assessing technique-related variables and their possible contribution to ball release speed and
injury prompted the current study. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the relationship between kinematic
variables associated with the pace bowling action, low back and lower limb injury, and ball release speed.
Methods: Kinematic, injury and performance related data of thirty-one injury free, premier league (amateur) pace
bowlers were collected at the start and end of the cricket season while injury incidence were monitored throughout the
cricket season. Paired and independent Student’s t-tests, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc
comparisons were used to analyse relationships between kinematics-, injury- and performance-related variables.
Results: Sixteen (51.6%) bowlers sustained one or more injuries during the course of the eight month cricket season.
The mean ball release speed was 124.09 km/hr (standard deviation ±7.47 km/hr). A more extended knee angle
(r=0.404; p=0.037) at front foot placement was associated with higher ball release speed at the start of the season,
while bowlers who did not sustain an injury during the season displayed more flexed knee angles at the start of the
season than those who sustained an injury (p=0.020). A more extended global trunk position (r= -0.3668; p=0.046),
were correlated with higher ball release speeds at the start of the season. Bowlers who sustained injuries during the
cricket season bowled in a position of global trunk extension and those who did not sustain injuries bowled in a position
of flexion when measured at the start of the cricket season (p=0.0093). The smaller the change between global trunk
flexion between front foot placement and ball release, the higher the ball release speed at the start of the season (r=0.398; p=0.029), while in non-injured bowlers the range of flexion at L1 was greater than the injured bowlers as
measured at the end of the season (p=0.031).
Discussion and Conclusions: Some technique-related variables which allow a bowler to bowl at high speeds are at the
same time associated with injury. A balance should be created between injury preventative strategies and performance
enhancing strategies where these interventions pertain to the biomechanics of the pace bowling technique. Finding this
balance is a challenge as it can cause internal conflict in the bowler, where the bowler will go to great lengths to attain
high ball release speeds, but at the expense of injury prevention. The reverse is also true: a bowler may consider
limiting the kinematic, technique-related variables that predispose him to injury, but that will mostly have to be done at
the expense of performance.
References:
Bartlett RM, Stockill NP, Elliott BC, et al. J Sports Sci. 1996;14(5):403-24.
Stuelcken MC, Ferdinands RE, Sinclair PJ. J Appl Biomech. 2010;26(1):52-61.
Elliott BC, Davis JW, Khangure MS, Hardcastle P, Foster D.. Clinical Biomech. 1993;8:227-34.
Portus M, Mason BR, Elliott BC, et al. Sports Biomech. 2004;3(2):263-84.
83
Oral presentations
Surgeries performed in professional Australian male cricketers
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
John ORCHARD1, Stuart Down2, Trefor James2, Greg Hoy3, David Young3, Patrick Farhart4, Murray
Ryan4, Doug Wheen4, Alex Kountouris1
1 Cricket Australia
2 Cricket Victoria & Cricket New South Wales
3 Melbourne Orthopaedic Group
4 Centre for Hand Surgery
Aims: This is a descriptive epidemiology study, to describe the distribution and rate of surgical operations in
professional Australian male cricketers.
Methods: Australian cricket has maintained an injury database since season 1998-99 with surgical details for players
inconsistently recorded as part of injury records. This existing database was updated with surgical records from file
review of all male players contracted to Australia, Victoria and New South Wales between seasons 1998-99 and 201314. The procedures performed on players in these states were used to determine the rate of surgeries. The definition of
surgery was a cricket-related procedure which required hospital admission (i.e. excluding procedures performed at a
cricket ground or clinic like suturing of wounds and excluding hospital admission for a medical illness only).
Results: There were 1295 player years studied which gave rise to 253 surgeries, a rate of 19.5 surgeries per 100 player
years. There were 46 revision surgeries (a rate of 18% of all surgeries being revisions). The most common procedures
being knee arthroscopy (48), ankle posterior impingement procedures (22), shoulder arthroscopy (24), ankle
arthroscopy (19) and fixation of wrist & hand fractures (15). Fast bowlers had a higher rate of surgery (25.0 per 100
player seasons) and batsmen had a lower rate of surgery (14.1 per 100 player seasons) than other positions.
Discussion and Conclusions: Published surgical audits in professional sport have usually looked at a single operation or
body part series, with relatively few publications detailing the entire profile of surgery in athletes (1). From the limited
previous audit of the football codes in Australia, it is apparent that the annual rate of surgery in fast bowlers
approaches that of footballers, but the rate of surgery in batsmen, spin bowlers and wicketkeepers is lower. There are
differences in the distribution of surgeries compared to other sports with fast bowlers requiring more ankle posterior
impingement procedures, for example, and hand and finger fracture fixation being common in cricket.
References:
Orchard J, Dan S, Steet E et al. (2009) Surgical procedures performed at an NRL club over 10 years. Sport Health 27 (1):
17-29.
84
Oral presentations
Injury surveillance in Pakistan cricket and the impact of 2009 terrorist
attack
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
Hussain Ijaz Khan1, Hassan Sajjad Khan2, Amad Naseer Khan3, Zain Ijaz Khan4, Yasir Malik1, Sohail
Saleem1, John ORCHARD5
1 Pakistan Cricket Board
2 Superior University
3 Aga Khan University
4 University of Management and Technology
5 Cricket Australia
Aims: Injury surveillance in cricket has been going on for the best part of two decades, however to date no such
surveillance has been undertaken in sub-continent. Sub-continent comprises of 4 test playing nations with a very
different climate, playing conditions and physiques, which can potentially lead to a very different injury profile
compared to countries such as Australia, South Africa and England. The aim of this study was injury surveillance in
Pakistan domestic cricket and comparison of injury profile with other countries.
Methods: Injuries occurring in all three formats to all domestic teams were surveyed prospectively in season 2010/11.
One day domestic (ODD) and four day first class competitions comprised of 22 teams divided into two divisions. T20
tournament comprised of 13 city based franchises. Data on injuries was collected after every match from the team
physiotherapist via telephone or email. Injuries were defined in accordance with revised injury surveillance consensus
statement (Orchard 2010).
Results: Average injury match incidence for Divison-1 in first class and ODD matches was 29.55 and 16.02 injuries per
10000 player hours respectively. Similarly in Division-2 injury match incidence in first class and ODD matches was 22.80
and 57.67 injuries per 10000 player hours respectively. Average injury incidence in T20 cricket was 44.46 injuries per
10000 player hours. Combined first class and ODD average seasonal incidence in Division-1 and 2 was 13.69 and 11.63
injuries per squad per season respectively. Injury prevalence (the percentage of players missing through injury at any
given time) in Division-1 and 2 was 4.20 % and 3.50 % respectively. Fast bowlers had the highest injury prevalence in
both Divisions. Lower limb injuries (1.71%) had the highest prevalence followed by illnesses (0.84%), truck/back
(0.74%), upper limb (0.58%) and head/neck (0.05%) injuries.
Discussion and Conclusions: Pattern of injuries in Pakistan cricket indicates that fast bowlers are most at risk of acute
injuries especially to the lower limbs. A very high prevalence of illnesses is a reflection of harsh economic realities most
of the players and clubs are facing to make ends meet. Post 2009 attacks on the Sri Lankan team, Pakistan Cricket Board
stopped providing central contracts to domestic players due to a drop from income which was mostly reliant on foreign
teams touring Pakistan. Most clubs could only provide sub-standard accommodation and food to their players on tours
which resulted in a high number of infections which included cases of food poisoning, malaria and dengue fever.
Educating players and clubs about preventive strategies and healthy dietary practices can help reduce the injury burden
in Pakistan cricket.
85
Oral presentations
The effects of different ball delivery methods on the kinematic response of
elite cricket batsmen in repeated pull shots
Theme: Biomechanics of Technique and Performance
Chris PEPLOE1, Mark King2 , Andy Harland1
1 Sports Technology Institute, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK
2 Sports Biomechanics Department, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK
Background: When facing a fast bowler, cricket batsmen are required to determine the future arrival time and position
of the ball, and move into a suitable position to successfully intercept it with the bat, often in less than 500ms.
However, to avoid unnecessary stress and injury to the bowlers, a range of different ball delivery methods are used in a
training environment to allow batsmen repeated practice against a fast moving ball. While previous studies have
investigated the effects of facing different delivery methods on batsman response in the forward drive, none have
considered shots off the back foot against short-pitched bowling. Anecdotally the ability to play against, and score off
short-pitched bowling, is seen as essential to batting success at the highest level, and as such accurately representing
this delivery in training is vital to the development of a batsman’s skills.
Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in delivery characteristics and the resulting kinematic
response of elite cricket batsmen when hitting repeated pull shots against a bowling machine, a Sidearm™ ball thrower,
and a bowler.
Methods: Sixteen elite cricket batsmen (age = 21.6 ± 2.7 years) including one with full international playing honours for
England, four from the England Lions squad, seven who had represented England under 19’s, and four premiership club
players, were analysed hitting repeated pull shots against each delivery method in a realistic training environment. An
18 camera Vicon three-dimensional motion capture system (250Hz) was used to capture full body, bat and ball
kinematics during each shot, while synchronous high-speed video also operating at 250Hz captured the timing of ball
release and bounce. A series of discrete timing and kinematic variables deemed important in the execution of the
batting stroke, identified from coaching literature and previous batting research, were then extracted from the
resulting biomechanical model. Separate one-way within subjects ANOVA’s were used to compare each variable
between delivery methods.
Results: A number of differences between the delivery methods investigated were found, in terms of delivery
characteristics and the kinematic response of the batsman. The Sidearm™ was found to not mimic the bowlers in terms
of delivery speed or the reaction time provided to the batsman. While the bowling machine more closely matched the
delivery characteristics of the bowlers, batsmen displayed a range of significant differences in movement timing and
kinematic response when compared to facing a bowler.
Discussion and Conclusions: The implications of these findings to players are briefly discussed, and the potential
applications of this study to elite and developing coaching practice are considered. It is concluded that neither the
Sidearm™ nor bowling machine provide an accurate representation of batting against a bowler in the manner they are
currently used.
86
Oral presentations
Captain and coaches playbook app: a practical display of fielding data
Theme: Statistical Approaches In Cricket
Carl PETERSEN1, Rob Genet1
1 University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
Aims: Despite the adage that ‘catches win matches’, research into fielding is sparse compared with batting and bowling
(MacDonald et al., 2013). Tactically, fielder positioning is a key task undertaken by cricket captains, and contributes
greatly to a team’s success, as bowling maiden overs has been shown to be more important in the later stages of an
international tournament (Petersen et al., 2008). The greatest volume of data collected in cricket is on tactics - with
professionalism most elite teams employ an analyst that codes every single match delivery. Yet, this data is mostly
analyzed within the context of the match it was collected in. Genet and Petersen (2014) recently presented sample data
combining bowling delivery (line and length) with resultant positional outcome of hit ball location across the 2013 ICC
Champions Trophy One Day International Tournament. This paper outlines the scope of that data-set and describes a
new tool to integrate cricket performance analysis research into the modern training and competition environment.
Methods: We developed an App with a user-interface display allowing fielding performance analysis data retrieval.
Data was retrieved by choosing from six customizable options that included: bowling and batting handedness, bowling
position (over / around), bowler type as well as the classified bowling line and length. The resultant percentage
distribution data of hit ball locations is displayed on a field image detailing 10 fielding locations.
Results: The analyzed data resulted 576 possible data screens of hit ball locations. When limited data existed for a
particular variable combination, user choices were greyed out.
Discussion and Conclusions: Coach and Captains’ may utilise the playbook App for fielding planning based on a
particular bowling delivery. The App should encourage the development of bowling plans, which may result in bowlers
becoming more accountable for the execution of their skill. Fielding is an essential component to winning matches, and
existing knowledge may be complemented by obtaining the considered opinions and insights of coaches and players
and by carrying out detailed video and notational analyses (MacDonald et al., 2013). Large fielding databases currently
exist but their value depends on an appropriate query and filtering. This paper details one such query and an associated
method of making fielding research accessible to the end-user. Ultimately, a captain’s field placement should exploit
these known hit distributions for each delivery type (Genet and Petersen, 2014). Future work should look to update the
underlying data set by localised geographic pitch conditions.
References:
Genet, R and Petersen, C. (2014). Cricket batting placement distribution analysed by bowling line and length at the
2013 ICC Champions Trophy. World Congress of Performance Analysis of Sport X, Opatija, Croatia, 3-7 Sept, 2014 (In
Press).
MacDonald, D., Cronin, J., Mills, J., McGuigan, M, and Stretch, R. (2013). A review of cricket fielding requirements.
South African Journal of Sports Medicine. 23 (3) 87-92.
Petersen, C., Pyne, D.B., Portus, M.R., Cordy, J., & Dawson, B. (2008) Analysis of performance at the 2007 Cricket World
Cup, International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 8:(1)1-8
87
Oral presentations
Physiological and perceptual responses of batsmen during a simulated
one day international century: impact on performance
Theme: Strength & Conditioning
Lee POTE1, Candice Christie1
1 Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa
Aims: Cricket has received very little research attention compared to other international sports, especially with respect
to the physical demands of match-play. Furthermore, very few studies have examined the demands of prolonged
batting on physical and perceptual responses and the impact on performance. Of the studies that have been
performed, most have used short duration and high intensity protocols and it has been questioned whether these are
representative of real time game-play. The purpose of this study was therefore to determine the effect of a simulated
ODI century on a batsman’s physiological and perceptual responses, and to determine whether a change in these
responses would impact performance.
©
Methods: Seventeen male cricketers performed a simulated batting innings (BATEX ), typical of scoring a One Day
©
international century. The BATEX protocol consisted of six, five over stages (21 minutes each), with each stage
matched to a specific phase of play where batsmen were encouraged to bat with the mindset of that phase. During
stages one, three and five players ran at a “self-selected cruise pace” whereas during stages two, four and six players
were required to run at maximum speed. Throughout the protocol physiological responses (heart rate, energy
expenditure and core temperature) were measured and perceptual responses (central ratings of perceived exertion)
were recorded at the end of each over. Performance responses (sprint times between the wickets) were recorded
during the high intensity stages, where the batsmen were required to sprint a ‘two’.
-1
Results: Throughout the protocol, mean heart rate was 144 (±14) bt.min and increased significantly (p<0.05) from 124
-1
-1
(±15) bt.min (stage one) to the highest response during stage six (159±13 bt.min ). Energy expenditure increased
significantly (p<0.05) during the high intensity stages (two, four and six) and decreased (significantly (p<0.05) during the
low intensity stages (one, three and five). The highest mean response was recorded during stage six (16.90±2.53
-1
o
Kcal.min ). Mean core temperature was 38.26 (±0.40) C and a significant (p<0.05) increase was shown between stages
one and six. Central ratings of perceived exertion increased significantly (p<0.05) over time except between stages two
2
and five. There was also a very strong, significant (p<0.05) and positive correlation (R =0.96) between heart rate and
central ratings of perceived exertion. Sprint times increased significantly (p<0.05) (players got slower) between stages
two and six.
Discussion and Conclusions: Batting for extended periods of time significantly influenced the physiological, perceptual
and performance responses of the players. Increases in the physiological and perceptual responses over time, as well
as an increase in the players’ sprint times, may be an indicator of physical fatigue as a consequence of extended
2
batting. Furthermore, a strong correlation (R =0.97) was observed between sprint times and RPE thus indicating that
sprint times may be used as a reliable performance indicator.
88
Oral presentations
The prevention of sudden cardiac death in elite cricketers
Raj PURANIK1, Chris Semsarian2, John Orchard3
1 Alfred Cardiolog,; University of Sydney
2 Centenary Institute, University of Sydney
3 Cricket NSW, University of Sydney
Aims: Sudden death in cricketers is rare, with the most-common causes being cardiac, neurological (head/neck trauma,
mainly from ball impact) and environmental (e.g. lightning strike, heat stroke). The aim of this study was to review
possible prevention of sudden cardiac death.
Methods: A literature review of possible causes of sudden cardiac death amongst cricketers was performed, along with
evaluation of evidence for existing preventative measures.
Results: Potential cardiac causes of sudden death whilst playing cricket can be divided into the following categories: (1)
atraumatic-origin arrhythmias (2) traumatic-origin arrthythmia (commotio cordis) (3) acquired coronary vascular
disease (4) pre-existing cardiomyopathies (5) viral cardiomyopathies. Preventive measures can be divided into preseason (cardiovascular screening), pre-match (assessment of viral illness), protective equipment (chest guards) and
post-event (presence of first aid response including defibrillators). There is strong evidence that trained response
particularly with a defibrillator is effective at preventing sudden cardiac death. There is moderate evidence that preseason cardiovascular screening (including ECG) is effective at preventing sudden cardiac death.
Discussion and Conclusions: ECG screening in cricketers is likely to provide beneficial information to decrease the risk
of sudden cardiac events, especially in an era of greater availability such as smart phone technology. This needs to be
balanced against the risk of false positive results and hence best offered to those symptomatic individuals (e.g. history
of syncope) or any player at higher than usual baseline risk (e.g. positive family history). Basic life support including
access to defibrillators should be available with trained personnel wherever they can be afforded. For levels of cricket
where medical personnel are not present, first aid courses including defibrillator use are recommended for players and
officials. Players with viral illness and high fever (>38.0 C) should avoid playing cricket. Chest guards are a good method
of preventing commotio cordis and should be considered particularly in junior players who are the higher risk group for
this condition.
References:
Alattar A, Maffulli N. The Validity of Adding ECG to the Preparticipation Screening of Athletes An Evidence Based
Literature Review. Transl Med UniSa. 2014 Dec 19;11:2-13.
Borjesson M, Serratosa L, Carre F et al. Consensus document regarding cardiovascular safety at sports arenas. Position
stand from the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation (EACPR), section of Sports
Cardiology. Eur Heart J. 2011 Sep;32(17):2119-24
Maron, BJ, Ahluwalia A, Haas TS et al. Global epidemiology and demographics of commotio cordis. Heart Rhythm
8:1969-71.
89
Oral presentations
Mixed actions and shoulder counter-rotation: Unlikely mechanical risk
factors for lower back stress fracture in fast bowlers
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
Craig RANSON1
1 Sports injury Research Group, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, United Kingdom
Background: Lower back injury, in particular stress fracture, has long been recognised as the biggest cause of lost
playing and training time in cricket [1]. Research into causative factors has been going on for over 30 years however
the incidence of lower back bone stress injury, usually on the side contralateral to the bowling arm, remains
unacceptably high. Sufferers typically present with gradual onset, localised, bowling related lower back pain on the
opposite side to the bowling arm. Discomfort is often felt with movements involving lumbar extension, however
activities apart from bowling can mostly be pain free. Bony stress injuries can range in severity from a stress reaction with swelling in the bone but no fracture, to partial stress fracture and most severely, complete stress fracture [2]. Early
research associated bowling action trunk alignment characteristics with occurrence of stress fracture. Specifically
implicated was excessive shoulder counter-rotation (SCR), whereby the shoulder girdle rotates from a relatively fronton position at back-foot contact on the crease, to a relatively side-on position just prior to front-foot contact. Bowling
actions with excessive (>30 degrees) of SCR have been termed mixed actions and remediation has been widely
advocated in the attempt to mitigate risk of lower back injury [3]. To date, no plausible explanation of SCR as a direct
cause of fast bowler lower back stress injury has been provided.
Aims: To explain whether mixed actions, and in particular, shoulder counter-rotation are likely to have any direct role in
the patho-mechanics of typical lower back bone stress lesions seen in fast bowlers.
Methods: A review of the lower back injury in fast bowling literature was conducted in order to formulate the opinions
expressed in this paper.
Results: Results from a number of studies indicate that over 70% of elite fast bowlers have SCR in excess of 30 degrees.
SCR is unlikely to be a risk factor for non-bowling arm side lower back bone stress injury in fast bowlers as timing of SCR
(from BFC to before FFC) and direction of trunk movement (ipsilateral rotation) do not correlate with the time when
contralateral lower back forces are likely to be highest (at FFC), and the likely mechanism (extreme contralateral trunk
side-flexion and extension at FFC) [4]. The degree of this extreme lower trunk movement during the FFC contact phase
seems relatively stable in elite fast bowlers.
Discussion and Conclusions: This review of the evidence indicates that rather than being a mechanism for lumbar stress
injury, SCR seems to be a normal characteristic of the majority of fast bowling actions. At the time when SCR occurs the
forces in the contralateral side of the lower back are likely to be relatively low as the lower trunk is in relatively neutral
alignment and the front (contralateral side) foot is not in contact with the ground. As the motion that is likely produce
high contralateral lower back forces during bowling seems difficult to change, addressing other risk factors such as
bowling workload, and bowler strength and conditioning are likely to be more effective than attempting technique
modification in elite fast bowlers.
References:
Orchard, J.W., et al., Changes to injury profile (and recommended cricket injury definitions) based on the increased
frequency of Twenty20 cricket matches. Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, 2010. 1: p. 63–76.
Ranson, C.A., A.F. Burnett, and R.W. Kerslake, Injuries to the lower back in elite fast bowlers: acute stress changes on
MRI predict stress fracture. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. British volume, 2010. 92(12): p. 1664-8.
Elliott, B.C. and M. Khangure, Disk degeneration and fast bowling in cricket: An intervention study. Medicine and
Science in Sports and Exercise, 2002. 34: p. 1714-1718.
Ranson, C., et al., The relationship between bowling action classification and three-dimensional lower trunk motion in
fast bowlers in cricket. Journal of Sports Sciences, 2008. 26(3): p. 267-276.
90
Oral presentations
Trials and tribulations of designing and implementing improved cricket
helmet safety standards
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
Craig RANSON1
1 Sports injury Research Group, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, United Kingdom
Background: Injury surveillance conducted over the last decade by the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) and the
International Cricket Council (ICC) documented a significant number of number of batting related face and head injuries
despite batsmen wearing helmets. A study of 35 such incidents sustained in professional and international cricket
revealed that a high percentage of injuries occurred due to contact of either the ball, or the faceguard onto the face.
Video analysis demonstrated that in many instances the ball could easily penetrate the gap between the helmet peak
and faceguard, even if that gap was set to less than ball width [1]. It was concluded that improved helmet design was
required to enable prevention of these often-serious injuries.
Aims: The aim of this project was to devise and implement improved safety standards for batting helmets in cricket.
Methods: The project was supported by the ICC in collaboration with key stakeholders including National Cricket
Boards (primarily the ECB), the Federation of International Cricket Associations (FICA), research institutes, the British
Standards Institute (BSi) and the major helmet manufacturers. A multi-facet approach was adopted which included;
education programmes for players on correct helmet selection and fitting, liaison with helmet manufacturers regarding
safety feature design, and formation of a panel to update the 1998 British Standard for Head Protectors in Cricket
(BS7928).
Results: After over two-years of consultation and research a BS7928:2013 was published in December, 2013,
completely superseding the old standard in June 2014. The new standard includes assessment of protection against ball
and faceguard facial impact from balls fired at multiple angles at realistic cricket speeds. Most major manufacturers
have now included new helmets features with a view to protecting against facial impact injuries and complying with
BS7928. It is envisaged that by the end of 2014 several manufacturers will have obtained BS7920:2013. Official
international endorsement of the new standard, and helmets that meet it, is now in process with Cricket’s governing
bodies and player associations. Despite these successes, development and adoption by players of improved helmets
has been frustratingly slow, despite ongoing high profile injuries whilst wearing old style helmets. Detail of the reasons
for this will be provided in the full paper.
Discussion and Conclusions: Ultimately this project has led to significant improvements in cricket helmet design that
will drastically improve wearer production. However, a number of factors including; slow manufacturing evolution,
player habits and governing body inertia, have meant that achieving uniform and mandatory adoption of improved
safety standards and equipment has been slower and more difficult than anticipated.
References:
Ranson, C., N. Peirce, and M. Young, Batting head injury in professional cricket: a systematic video analysis of helmet
safety characteristics. Br J Sports Med, 2013. 47(10): p. 644-8.
91
Oral presentations
Sodium bisphosphanate therapy on pars interarticularis stress fractures in
cricketers
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
Asela J.B.RATNAYAKE1, Hilarly J.Suraweera1, J.L.S.S.C..Jayasinghe1
1 Division of Sports Medicine, Orthopaedic & Trauma Unit, Teaching Hospital –Peradeniya, Sri
Lanka
Background: Occurrence of stress fractures in cricketers is common due to repetitive stress or bone overload and the
technical problems of the action. Fast bowlers are more vulnerable and the prevalence of Pars Interarticularis fractures
has been reported as 16.1%. There are many cases reported on stress reaction of the bones with clinical back pain.
Standard treatment is done conservatively by a combination of rest, supervised rehabilitation, anti-lordotic bracing,
bowling action analysis and correction of bowling action. Surgical options are available in some centers for non
responding individuals with conservative treatment. Sodium Bisphophonate therapy for stress fractures (MTSS) has
been tried out on few occasions and has noted promising results of early healing and return to play.
Aim and Objectives: To compare the response of the bisphophonate therapy and its effectiveness in pars inter
articularis stress fractures to the standard conservative treatment.
Method: This study was designed descriptively and six young cricketers were assessed with symptomatic pars
interartcularis stress fracture. CT Scanning was done to confirm the stress fracture without sclerotic changes. Those
with sclerotic changes were excluded and the selected six were treated with bisphophonate therapy on daily dosage of
10 mg regime. The results were compared with clinic records of 5 athletes who were treated previously with similar
conditions with standards conservative treatment.
Results: The age range of the cricketers was between 16 and 20 years. Five (5) of them were fast bowlers and one (1)
was a wicket keeper. The five players out of six were able to return to play with almost near normal painless functional
capacity between 80 to 106 days. One player did not respond to the therapeutic regime at all. Previous clinic records of
4 players with conservative management returned to play between 98 to 144 days. There were no side effects of
medication were reported.
Discussion and Conclusions: The time taken to return to play was significantly reduced when the standard conservative
treatment was combined with the bisphosphonate therapy. The medicated group reached their pre-injury level of
activity with mean of 93 days and the non-treated group with mean of 121 days. This preliminary descriptive data show
the possibility of bisphophonate therapy on selected pars inter-articularis fractures , improve the clinical symptoms
and the early return to play. Although the results are potential to rapid recovery, further research is needed to asses
possible side effects, dosage, regime and proper clinical trials.
References:
V.S Ranawat, et.al. Stress fractures of the lumbar pars interarticularis in athletes: a review based on long-term results of
18 professional cricketers. Injury 2003 December: 919-919.
Moen et.al. The treatment of medial tibial stress fracture with bisphophonates ; a report of two cases. Dutch J
SportsMed 2011; 1:1-4.
C J Standaert et al. Spondylolysis: a critical review. Br J Sports Med 2000 34: 415-422
92
Oral presentations
Effect of gender, socio - economic status on achievement motivation of
inter university cricket players of Mumbai region
Bhaskar SALVI1
1 Mulund College of Commerce Mulund (W) Mumbai , INDIA
Introduction: The application of Psychological principles to the improvement of performance in sports has received
greater attention in these days. There are certain accepted psychological principles which have to be applied, so that
their best in their performances coaches, physical educationist and sports scientist have always expressed a great need
to know more about those psychological principles, which are helpful in improving the motor skills of the players. Socioeconomic condition of the family plays an important role in achievement motivation. A number of studies conducted so
for on achievement motivation and socio-economic status have reviled that individuals belonging to higher social
classes display higher degree of motivation.
Motivation can be defined as the driving force behind all the actions of an individual. The influence of an individual’s
needs and desires both have a strong impact on direction of their behaviour. Motivation is based on your emotions and
achievement related goals.
Aims and Objectives: This study aimed to determine the relationship between socio-economic status and extent of
involvement. The need for achievement motivation is influenced by individual’s wishes for what they want to achieve,
their interest which influence the areas of achievement, past experiences, personality patrons, personal values, gender,
socio-economic background and even by the racial and cash bud ground. Apart from personal factors there are many
environmental factors also. The present study aims and objectives to find out the effect of Gender, socio-economic
status on achievement motivation of inter university cricket players Mumbai Region.
Methodology: For the present study 100 players were selected from university of Mumbai, Mumbai region, out of
which 50 players were Boys and 50 players were Girls. Age group of the players was 19 to 22 years. Psychological Scales
are used: Socio Economic Status Scale: This is short Socio Economic Status Scale developed by Dr. Janbhandhu. In this
scale consists of fifteen questions only which demand factual information about the subject’s socio economic
background.
Achievement Motivation Scale: This scale was constructed and standardize by Dr B.N. Mukharji. It is kind of projective
technique. This scales consists 25 incomplete sentences and each item is provided three alternatives the subjects had
to select one of the three alternative and complete sentences.
Conclusions: Male players have significantly high achievement motivation than female players. Players coming from
high socio economic status have significantly high achievement motivation than players coming from low socio
economic status. Coaches and trainers must pay the attention towards mental fitness as well as physical fitness. Before
the selection of players the selection committee should apply the psychological test. If present test applies it will be
easier for the coaching and development.
Key Word: Motor Skills Acquisition and Sports Psychology
93
Oral presentations
Fast bowling IMU data classification: A case study
Theme: New Developments In Cricket Technology
Liam SANDERS1, Christopher Brooks2, Dominic Hudson2, Stephen Turnock2, Alexander Forrester2
1 England and Wales Cricket Board, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK
2 Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK
Aims: The study aimed to facilitate the understanding of how fast bowler workloads, physical outputs and objective
physical stressors can be monitored in fast bowlers to an individualised level. The general knowledge with regards to
fast bowling workloads and forces is highly informative; subsequently there is a gap in the knowledge with regards to
how many of these factors interact at the individual level. The project sought to rectify the current gap in player
assessment and obtain an objective measure for bowler stress using accelerometry techniques.
TM
Methods: Accelerometer data from VX Sport VX340 IMU units [1] was used for data classification. The classification
of the raw IMU data was implemented using as a black-box function containing four key components: Raw IMU data
segmentation and feature extraction, Action classification using Support Vector Machines [2], Activity classification
using Discrete Hidden Markov Models and delivery metrics using a step detection model. Based on this process,
individual deliveries can be identified automatically, split into segments (run-up, delivery and follow-through) and
individual foot contacts.
Results: Player weighted load was found to be a key metric in the data collected. Player load is a measure initially
developed by Catapult and AIS [3] as a measure of exertion that is independent of distance. It is typically used as a
measure of athlete workload due to impacts. Sharper impacts will produce higher instantaneous player load values.
Athlete effort over time can be measured by accumulating player load values. Player load is the vector magnitude of
jerk (time derivative of acceleration), which is accumulated over the bowling delivery interval. Jerk is a measure of the
change in force on the body i.e. a sharper impact has a higher jerk value. Acceleration is proportional to the force on
the body, i.e. a harder impact has a higher acceleration value. By weighting the jerk by the acceleration the resulting
metric provides a measure which emphasises movements that are both harder and sharper. Player weighted load is
the vector magnitude of jerk weighted by acceleration accumulated over the delivery interval and its individual
segments. Player weighted delivery load was found to correlate well with Hawkeye derived ball velocity (r = 0.62, p
=>0.01).
Discussion and Conclusions: The automated delivery classification system shows promise as a tool to monitor bowling
workload (both in longitudinal and cross sectional studies). There is good correlation with existing measures, such as
Hawkeye velocity. Data suggests that there is often disagreement between player/coach-reported data and objective
assessments e.g. number of deliveries and percentage load compared with all-out effort.
References:
Visuallex sport international ltd. http://www.vxsport.com/content/products/VX340.
Chih-Chung, C. & Chih-Jen, L. 2011.ACM Trans. Intelligent Systems and Technology, 2:27.
Boyd LJ, et al., 2011. Int J Sports Physiol Perform.6(3):311-21.
94
Oral presentations
The influence of swing on the timing and coordination of a front-foot
defensive shot among cricket batters across skill and age
Theme: Motor Skill Aquisition & Sports Psychology
Vishnu SARPESHKAR1, David L. Mann2, Wayne Spratford3, Bruce Abernethy1,4
1 Centre for Sensorimotor Neuroscience, School of Health and Behavioral Sciences, University of
Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
2 Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, Netherlands
3 Movement Sciences, Australian Institute of Sport, Canberra, Australia
4 Institute of Human Performance, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Aims: To examine the development of differences in movement timing and coordination when hitting a swinging ball
during cricket batting.
Methods: Forty-three cricket batters grouped by skill level (skilled or club) and age (junior or senior) faced a ProBatter
machine that projected i) 18 blocked-straight deliveries (three randomised lengths: full, good, short) and ii) 48
randomised-swing deliveries that varied in swing direction (three directions: random-straight, random-outswing,
random-inswing) and length (full, good). Key kinematic variables were analysed using high-speed video footage (300Hz)
for front-foot defensive shots played against good-length trials in each of the conditions. The quality of bat-ball contact
was used to measure batting performance [1].
Results: When compared to straight trials, batting performance decreased against swinging trials irrespective of the
skill and/or age of the batters (p<.001). Batters delayed almost every aspect of their movement against swinging
deliveries (initiation of bat-backswing, initiation of front-foot stride, peak bat-height, planting of front-foot stride,
initiation of bat-downswing, bat-ball contact; ps<.02) resulting in an increase in the angular velocity of the downswing
(p<.001). When compared to the club-level batters, the skilled batters were better at coupling the planting of their
front-foot stride with the initiation of bat-downswing in swinging trials (p<.005), but not in straight trials. When
compared to facing the blocked-straight trials, all batters increased the percentage of front-foot defensive shots played
against straight balls that were mixed with swinging balls (random-straight trials; p<.005). Batters in the randomstraight trials hit the ball earlier (p<.01) and further away from the stumps (p<.05). Skilled, but not club-level batters,
adapted to the random-straight trials by shortening the duration of their backswing (p<.02) and increasing their stride
velocity (p<.05). Club batters on the other hand, increased the duration and delayed the completion of the front-foot
stride (ps<.05).
Discussion and Conclusions: The increased spatio-temporal demands required to hit a swinging ball led to considerable
delays in the timing of each movement phase, with batters shortening their movements and increasing their bat-swing
velocity [2]. Not surprisingly, the ability to hit a swinging ball provides a more sensitive test of skill-based differences
than does hitting a straight ball, with swing decreasing the movement coupling and interceptive performance of club
batters more than it did for the skilled batters. Presenting straight balls mixed with swinging balls didn't necessarily
break-down the critical coupling between the completion of front-foot stride and bat-downswing [3], but rather the
random presentation caused the relative timing of movement to change, leading batters to ultimately hit the ball
earlier and further away from the stumps. Most of the differences between groups were attributable to skill level
rather than age, suggesting that differences in proficiency were likely to emerge from a young age and the size of the
effect did not increase with age.
References:
Müller, S. and Abernethy, B., Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 2008. 11(6): p. 549-552.
Craig, C., Bastin, J., and Montagne, G., Human Movement Science, 2011. 30(5): p. 931-941.
Weissensteiner, J.R., Abernethy, B., and Farrow, D., Sports Biomechanics, 2011. 10(4): p. 324-338.
95
Oral presentations
Bowling technique variability throughout a prolonged bowling spell in
junior fast bowlers
Theme: Biomechanics of Technique and Performance
Andrew SCHAEFER1, Nicholas O’Dwyer1,2 Rene E.D. Ferdinands2, Suzi Edwards1
1 School of Human Movement Studies, Charles Sturt University, NSW, Australia
2 Discipline of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia
Background: Fast bowlers in cricket have a high incidence of lumbar spine overuse injury due to the highly repetitive
nature of fast bowling [1,2]. Low movement variability is a factor that has been implicated in other overuse injuries,
including low back pain in runners [3]. It is feasible therefore that a relation also exists between low variability and
lumbar spine injury in bowlers, but such a link has not been reported.
Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine whether variability of fast bowling technique changes significantly
throughout a prolonged bowling spell.
Methods: Twenty-five junior male fast bowlers (12-19 years), recruited from local district- and zone-level
representative teams, performed a 10-over bowling spell (60 trials) on a standard-size cricket pitch at competition pace.
During a four-minute non-bowling period between overs, they performed six 5 m walks approximately every 30 s and
after three of the walks, performed three randomised fielding activities. Passive reflective markers (77) were placed on
each limb, and on the pelvis, torso and head. During each trial, the bowlers three-dimensional ground reaction forces
(two Kistler force platforms, 1000 Hz) and kinematics (12-camera Qualisys motion capture system, 500 Hz) were
recorded. Analyses were performed using Visual3D software (C-Motion) at six stages of the bowling action: back-foot
initial ground contact, back-foot toe off, front-foot initial ground contact, upper-arm horizontal backwards, ball release,
upper-arm vertically downwards. The within-subject standard deviation (SD) was used to assess the magnitude of
variability across overs for a comprehensive set of whole-body kinematic and kinetic variables and analysed using
repeated-measures factorial analyses of variance, with computation of effect sizes.
Results: For 22 joint angle SDs, no significant main effect of overs was found (F2,48 = 1.57, p = 0.22) nor any interaction
of stages x overs (F8,192 = 1.24, p = 0.28), angles x overs (F42,1008 = 1.15, p = 0.24) or stages x angles x overs (F168,4032 = 0.97,
p = 0.59). No significant change in the SDs of 30 net internal peak joint moments was found between overs (F2,48 = 1.53,
p = 0.23) nor was there any moments x overs interaction (F58,1392 = 1.16, p = 0.19). No significant main effect of overs
(F2,48 = 0.31, p = 0.73) nor joint force x overs interaction (F12,288 = 1.09, p = 0.36) was found for the SDs of 7 joint forces.
Discussion and Conclusions: No changes were observed across overs in the magnitude of the variability of any
kinematic or kinetic variable, indicating that the bowlers did not alter their motor behaviour during the spell. Hence,
they did not show any adaptation to the environmental conditions, instead maintaining the relative complexity of their
movement patterns [4]. Thus, any injury risk attributable to abnormal variability did not change during the spell. The
absence of change in bowling technique, loading pattern or performance variability during this prolonged spell provides
a scientific basis for re-examining the current workload guidelines for fast bowlers.
References:
Dennis, R, Farhart, P, Goumas, C, et al. (2002) Journal of Science & Medicine in Sport, 5, 80.
Petersen, CJ, Pyne, DB, Portus, MR, et al. (2009) International Journal of Sports Physiology & Performance, 4, 278-281.
Seay, J, Van Emmerik, REA, Hamill, J, et al. (2011) Clinical Biomechanics, 26, 572-578.
Hamill, J, Palmer, C, Van Emmerik, REA, (2012) Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology, 4,
45-53.
96
Oral presentations
Cricketers - are they a pain in the back? Can dry needling help them?
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
Peter SELVARATNAM1
1 The Melbourne Spinal and Sports Medicine Clinic, A/Professor The University of Melbourne,
Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, Melbourne Australia, Visiting Lecturer
Nawaloka Hospital, Sri Lanka
Cricketers at the international level and at grass roots levels sustain injuries to the lumbar and cervical regions, the
peripheral joints and muscles. The team approach by Musculoskeletal Physiotherapists, Sports Physiotherapists and
Sports Physicians in conjunction with coaches, high performance exercise physiologists and biomechanists provides
optimal assistance to the cricketer’s recovery. Injury management by health professionals may include appropriate
medication, mobilization, active rehabilitation interventions, biomechanical analysis, fitness training and mind training
to name a few.
Wet needling with local anaesthetic or corticosteroids may assist some conditions. Since 1977 dry needling with
acupuncture needles has been used in sports people including cricketers to assist recovery from trauma. Dry needling
(DN) is different from traditional Chinese medicine. It is cost effective with minimal side-effects. This presentation will
discuss the neurophysiological effects of dry needling at the injury site and at the brain. Discussion will also include the
evidence for dry needling from research conducted in Australian Rules footballers with back related hamstring injuries.
These neurophysiological effects of DN may benefit cricketers in their return to sport in conjunction with physiotherapy
rehabilitation, biomechanical analysis and mind training.
References:
Brukner, P and Khan, K. 2006 Clinical Sports Medicine. McGraw-Hill Professional, Sydney
Huguenin L, Brukner PD, McCrory K et al. 2005 Effect of dry needling of gluteal muscles on straight leg raise: a
randomised, placebo controlled, double blind trial.
Br J Sports Med. Feb; 39(2):84-90
Jayaseelan, D, • Moats, N and R. Ricardo C. 2014 Rehabilitation of Proximal Hamstring Tendinopathy Utilizing Eccentric
Training, Lumbopelvic Stabilization, and Trigger Point Dry Needling: 2 Case reports. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther
44(3):198-205.
Selvaratnam PJ and Gabel P. 2009 Dry needling, acupuncture and laser. In: Selvaratnam PJ, Niere K and Zuluaga M.
Headache Orofacial Pain and Bruxism. Diagnosis and multidisciplinary approaches to management. Churchill
Livingstone, Elsevier, Edinburgh
97
Oral presentations
Cricket Biomechanics in the Indian scenario
Arumugam SIVARAMAN1
1 Sri Ramachandra Arthroscopy & Sports Sciences Centre, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai,
India
Cricket is the most popular sport in India, which is played across all the age groups, genders and levels of participation.
Despite the huge interest in cricket in India, There are only a limited number of Injury observational studies being
conducted in India despite the large pool of cricketers and the prevalence of injuries. Among them very few studies
have looked into the Biomechanics of various activities in cricket. The research in biomechanics has also been limited
only to 2D analysis techniques, due to the non-availability of a 3D motion analysis lab in India. A 3D lab has now been
set up in Sri Ramachandra Arthroscopy and Sports Sciences Centre (SRASSC), Chennai which has been accredited by the
International Cricket Council for assessment of suspect action in bowlers. The lab has all modern facilities like a fully
climate controlled indoor sports hall with special flooring and lighting and a full run up for bowling. A total number of
20 Vicon cameras, 2 high speed Bonita video cameras,14 AMTI force plates spread over the bowling and batting areas
and a 16 channel wireless EMG system complete the set up which has the capacity of simultaneous and real time
batting and bowling motion capture. Over 80 bowlers have been tested in this facility for various purposes which
include Assessment of Suspect Bowling Action and Injury Prevention. Apart from the official and unofficial ICC tests,
national cricket boards including the BCCI (Board of Cricket Control in India) have been sending their domestic level
players also for bowling action analysis. Ever since the lab has been commissioned, it has been witnessing a lot of
research activity. A series of research projects have been initiated and three of them are being presented at this
congress. The first study titled “Biomechanical analysis of Cricket fast bowing in University level bowlers” analyses
technique factors such as Bowling Action Classification, Shoulder Counter Rotation, Pelvic-Shoulder Separation Angle,
Lateral Flexion, Front Knee Angle, Front Foot Vertical Ground Reaction Force (vGRF) and Ball Release Speed in them.
Our second study compares the bowling techniques of sub-elite (skilled) and university level amateur cricketers.The
sub-elite bowlers had a marginally faster ball release speed and experienced larger vGRF (normalized to bodyweights)
than amateur fast bowlers while the other biomechanical parameters did not show any significant differences between
the two groups. Another study comparing biomechanical analysis of fast bowling using 2D and 3D techniques proposes
that 2D analysis can only be used for early detection of risk factors for injury prevention while Bowling Action Type and
Legality should be analyzed using 3D. The availability of this full-fledged Biomechanics lab dedicated to Cricket and its
proposed collaboration with the Australian Institute of Sport augurs well for Cricket research in India. This ultimately
can help the game and the players.
98
Oral presentations
Resistance training practices for fast bowlers amongst cricket coaches in
Australia
Najeebullah SOOMRO1, Jonathan Freeston1, Daniel Hackett1, Ross Sanders1
1 Discipline of Exercise and Sport Science, the University of Sydney, Lidcombe, NSW, Australia
Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate practices of cricket coaches in Australia with regards to resistance
training for fast bowlers.
Methods: A survey was created using the Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) Survey instrument. An
introductory email describing with project link was sent through database of 548 Level 2 cricket coaches registered with
Cricket NSW.
Results: The response rate was 31 % (171 of 548). Of the 171 coaches that responded to the survey 97% (165) had level
2 accreditation from Cricket Australia. 45% of the respondents were above 50 years and 27% respondents were under
the age of 40. 28% (44) coaches engaged their players in resistance training (RT) exercises and, 23% (39) encouraged
the fast bowlers (FBs) to engage in RT outside the team training times. Lower back, abdominal muscles and buttocks
(gluteals) were the most recommended muscle groups by the coaches to be targeted during RT by fast bowlers (Figure
1).
Figure 1: Muscle groups recommended by coaches to target during RT of fast bowlers.
Lower Back
38
Abdominals
35
Buttocks
32
Hamstrings
30
Shoulders
29
Thighs
24
Upper Back
23
Chest
17
Arms
16
Calves
11
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Number of coaches
The most common exercises recommended were squats, lunges; core work - static holds, bridges, sit-ups; upper body bench press, push-ups, medicine balls throw downs (front and lateral). 89% (152) coaches were aware of bowling
recommendations for FBs by Cricket Australia according to ages. 59% (101) asked the FBs to follow the
recommendations in the training sessions.
Discussion and Conclusions: The results of this survey provide detailed insight on the resistance training practices of
accredited cricket coaches. It also sheds light on the importance coaches place on training lower back and core in fast
bowlers. Review of these practices can help in the understanding of current training methods and development of
structured S&C programs in cricket.
Keywords: resistance training, fast bowlers, exercises, cricket, strength and conditioning
99
Oral presentations
Cricket injury surveillance by mobile application technology on
smartphones
Najeebullah SOOMRO1, Habib Noorbhai2, Mariam Soomro3, Ross Sanders1
1 Discipline of Exercise and Sports Sciences Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney
2 UCT/MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences,
University of Cape Town
3 Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam
Introduction: The demands on cricketers are increasing with more matches being played in a shorter period of time
with a greater intensity. A ten year report on injury incidence for Australian elite cricketers between the 2000- 2011
seasons revealed an injury incidence rate of 17.4%.1 In the 2009–10 season, 24 % of Australian fast bowlers missed
matches through injury. 1 Injury rates are even higher in junior cricketers with an injury incidence of 25% or 2.9 injuries
per 100 player hours reported. 2 Traditionally, injury surveillance has relied on the use of paper based forms or
complex computer software. 3,4 This makes injury reporting laborious for the staff involved. The purpose of this
presentation is to describe a smartphone based mobile application as a means of improving injury surveillance in
cricket.
Methods: The researchers developed CricPredict mobile App for the Android platforms, the world’s most widely used
smartphone platform. It uses Qt SDK (Software Development Kit) as IDE (Integrated Development Environment). C++
was used as the programming language with the Qt framework, which provides us with cross-platform abilities that will
allow this app to be ported to other operating systems (iOS, Mac, Windows) in the future. The wireframes (graphic user
interface) were developed using Justinmind Prototyper Pro Edition Version (Ver. 6.1.0). CricPredict enables recording of
injury and training status conveniently and immediately. When an injury is reported automated follow-up questions
include site of injury, nature of injury, mechanism of injury, initial treatment, referral and action taken after injury.
Direct communication with the player then enables assessment of severity and diagnosis. CricPredict also allows the
coach to maintain and track each player’s attendance at matches and training session. Workload data can also be
recorded by either the player or coach by recording the number of balls bowled or played in a day. This is helpful in
formulating injury rates and time lost due to injuries. All the data are stored at a secured password protected data
server.
Outcomes and Significance: Use of CricPredit offers a simple, user friendly tool for the coaching or medical staff
associated with teams to predict record and report injuries. This system will assist teams to capture injury data with
ease thus allowing better understanding of injuries associated with cricket and potentially optimise the performance of
such cricketers.
References:
Orchard J, James T, Kountouris A, Blanch P, Sims K, Orchard J. Injury report 2011: Cricket Australia. Sport Health.
2011;29(4):16.
Das NS, Usman J, Choudhury D, Abu Osman NA (2014) Nature and Pattern of Cricket Injuries: The Asian Cricket Council
Under-19, Elite Cup, 2013. PLoS ONE 9(6): e100028. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0100028
Ranson C, Hurley R, Rugless L, Mansingh A, Cole J (2011) International cricket injury surveillance: a report of five teams
competing in the ICC Cricket World Cup 2011. Br J Sports Med 47(10): 637–43.
Sports Medicine Australia, Cricket Injury Reporting form. http://sma.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/ddcricket.pdf
accessed 08/10/2014
Keywords: injury, cricket, surveillance, smartphones, mobile
100
Oral presentations
Extending the duckworth-lewis method to deal with modern scoring rates
Theme: Statistical Approaches In Cricket
Steven E STERN1
1 Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
Aims: The famous (and occasionally infamous) Duckworth-Lewis methodology for dealing with interruptions in limited
overs cricket matches made its international debut in 1996. For nearly 20 years, it has set the standard for target
adjustment at nearly all levels of the game. In that time, though, it has not been static. Indeed, in late 2003, the socalled “Professional Edition” of the method was introduced to handle changes to the scoring patterns which were
becoming apparent in modern cricket. We here introduce the Duckworth-Lewis Stern Edition (or DLS method), which is
designed to deal with the now common extreme scoring rates seen in modern limited overs matches, particularly
Twenty20. In addition, we outline some additional uses of the Duckworth-Lewis concepts in examining player
contributions to match outcomes as well as measuring team performance and margins of victory.
Methods: Ball-by-ball scoring data for all men’s One-Day and Twenty20 International matches played between July 1,
2010 and June 30, 2014 is used to model the runs scored in any given number of overs still available and with any given
number of wickets are still available. The model employed expands upon the exponential decay structure of the
“Professional Edition” of the Duckworth-Lewis methodology (Duckworth & Lewis, 2004). In addition, comparison of
actual versus expected (or “par”) scores at various match stages is used to assess both overall team and individual
player relative performances. These match-specific comparisons can then be accumulated over time to develop team
and player rankings.
Results: The “Professional Edition” structure of the Duckworth-Lewis methodology is found to be inadequate to
capture observed scoring patterns in very high scoring matches. As such, a more flexible version, the Duckworth-Lewis
Stern Edition (DLS method), is proposed and fit to the observed data. In addition, measures of match and individual
performances are derived. The relative resource differential (RRD) is found to give a reasonably symmetric and
appropriate measure of margins of victory in limited overs matches. The adjusted net runs attributable (aNRA), based
on extending the work of Lewis (2005), provides useful measure of relative player performance within a match.
Discussion and Conclusions: With the rapid increase in Twenty20 cricket’s popularity, there has been a surge in modern
international scoring rates. Moreover, in very high scoring matches, the pattern of run-scoring becomes notably
different to those seen in more moderate scoring matches. In particular, while the latter are seen to produce scoring
rates which steadily accelerate towards the close of the innings, the former follow patterns of a less regular structure,
instead showing relatively more rapid starts and more extreme finishes combined with a more moderate middle stage.
The DLS method model structure is based upon capturing this specific aspect of very high scoring matches, and thus fits
modern scoring data better than its predecessor. For this reason, the DLS method was adopted as the official target
setting procedure in all international limited overs matches by the International Cricket Council (ICC) as of October 1,
2014.
References:
Duckworth, FC & Lewis, AJ (2004). “A successful operational research intervention in one-day cricket.” The Journal of
the Operational Research Society 55, 749-759.
Lewis, AJ (2005). “Towards fairer measures of player performance in one-day cricket.” Journal of the Operational
Research Society 56, 804–815.
101
Oral presentations
Emotion, psychological skills, and resilience in Australian professional
cricketers
Theme: Motor Skill Aquisition & Sports Psychology
John SUTTON1, Doris McIlwain1
1 Departments of Cognitive Science and Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia
Elite performance in sport demands exceptional emotional and psychological skills as well as technical prowess.
Sustaining peak performance across a career requires coping under pressure and bouncing back from setbacks. But
research is lacking on individuals’ unique mental skills and different forms of resilience, compared with sophisticated
individual training programs in strength and conditioning. Little scientific work effectively addresses links between
individual wellbeing and performance.
Aims: This mixed-method project in partnership with the Australian Cricketers’ Association and Cricket Australia aims to
i) produce evidence-based understanding of elite player achievement ideals, work-life balance and social support, and
players’ emotion-regulation strategies; and
ii) assess the diversity of individual resilience styles.
Methods: We interviewed 32 Australian professional cricketers (10 with international experience) in 2013-2014: four
independent coders analysed transcripts using grounded theory. Thematic coding of interviews informed the design of
psychometric surveys completed in 2014 by 84 professional cricketers (21 with international experience) to assess
work-life balance, social support, dispositional mental toughness, flow, range and intensity of emotional experience,
attitudes to emotion expression, and capacity to reflect on feelings.
Results: We report striking qualitative data from interviews with Australian cricketers, and analyse connections
between interview themes and quantitative psychometric results. Major themes are Early History, Work Context, Team
Process, Thinking Cricket, and Emotions in Cricket. Emotions in Cricket includes enjoyment/satisfaction, motivation, onfield emotions, emotional catalysts, emotional residues, personal coping style. Some ideals about emotional expression
(‘just move on’, ‘keep it simple’, maintain ‘the level roller-coaster’) are experienced by some players as hard to live up
to. Personal taboos about expressing negative emotions deprived some players of support during difficult phases.
Cricketers rate themselves on average as devoting 61% of their lives to cricket. Their social support became more
cricket-centred as players move from state to international cricket. On average 39% of cricketers’ friends are also
professional cricketers: 20% would like more kinds of support. Those who have more friends are higher on Mental
Toughness [r = .24 p<.03], seeing as a challenge what others might see as a stressor. They are also higher on Reflecting
on Feelings [r = .22 p<.04]: they can pick up on and use inner emotional signals, and control their own intensity via
breathing or thought patterns. Those who had fewer friends were least able to discern and label emotions [r = .29
p<.01]: those who could not label feelings rated themselves as getting the least adequate support from friends
(company, advice, assistance etc.).
Discussion and Conclusions: Emotional style is linked with differences in social support, life balance, and wellbeing.
There are distinct styles of resilience, and therefore different kinds of challenge. Some players encapsulate themselves
more within the world of cricket. Those who can reflect on their feelings get the best support from their friends.
Personality and emotional style are linked to styles of resilience and optimal enjoyment of the game. In ongoing
research, we need to track cricketers’ resilience across matches and seasons, and compare Australian cricketers against
international cricket cultures, and against other elite sports.
102
Oral presentations
Cardiovascular risks for participation in cricket among the adolescent
players who are attending selected sports medicine clinics in Sri LankaPilot study
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
Dilanthika N.P.M1, Kandulawa B.M.N.P1, Karunarathna K.M.N1, Gunathilake K.C.P1, Sanka
THEBUWANARACHCHI1, Ruwanga G.D.M1, De Silva Y.H.S1, Senaratna C, Thurairaja1
1 Post Graduate Institute Of Medicine Sri Lanka
Introduction: Undetected Cardiovascular abnormalities are major cause of sudden death in young players worldwide.
Currently we are lacking data on this field in Sri Lanka. Recent deaths of young players drew public attention on the
implementation of preventive measures by the Health care sector in the country. As an initiative, the pilot study was
conducted to identify the prevalence, the associated factors of cardiovascular disease among the adolescent players
and the cardiovascular risks for participating in cricket.
Methods: Research was conducted in three Sports medicine clinics selected from the hospitals of three main provinces
in the country including Western, Southern and Central Provinces. Those were sports medicine clinics of Lady Ridgeway
Hospital, Colombo, Teaching Hospital, Karapitiya and Teaching Hospital Kandy where sports medical officers conduct
pre-participation medical screening o fplayers and documented in Pre- participation Examination (PPE) forms. Study
population consisted of adolescent players age group between 10yrs to 19yrs who attended same clinics for medical
clearance prior to the cricket tournament. Physically challenged players were excluded from the study. Sample was
selected from March 2013 to August 2013. The computed sample size was 566. Convenient cluster sampling method
was incorporated as limited number of sports medicine clinics in the country at the time of our study. Pre testing was
conducted which lead to the amendments in the Data extraction sheet. Secondary data was collected from the PPE
forms from the clinics. A cross sectional analytical study was conducted to determine the prevalence, the associated
factors of cardiovascular disease among the adolescent players and the cardiovascular risks for participating in cricket.
Results: Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases among adolescent players in Sri Lanka according to our study was 1.5%.
Most common cardiac abnormality was Mitral Valve Prolapse. Mitral Stenosis, Ventricular Septal Defect and Aortic
Stenosis were other cardiac abnormalities detected. Factors associated with cardiovascular diseases and the risks for
participating in cricket were chest pain upon exercise, Unexplained syncope during exercise, Shortness of breath during
exercise, Palpitations following exercise, Blood relatives with Premature sudden cardiac deaths <50yrs, First degree
relatives disability from heart disease <50yrs, Family history of Cardiomyopathy, Long QT syndrome and abnormal heart
rhythms or arrhythmias, Abnormal heart sounds, Heart murmur, ECG abnormality and Echo abnormality. Among those
factors chest pain upon exercise, Heart murmur and Echo abnormality was strongly associated with cardiovascular
disease. Important incidental finding of our study was a higher prevalence (5%) of Bronchial asthma among adolescent
athletes which was more than the cardiovascular disease.
Discussion: Properly conducted Pre-Participation screening which includes important aspects of Personal history, past
medical history, Family history and clinical examination reveals underlying cardiovascular disease and it may be used as
a tool to identify cardiovascular risks for participation in cricket among adolescent players. PPE forms should be
uniformed and validated as a data collecting method in sports medicine clinics around the country. In order to detect
asymptomatic cardiovascular abnormality all players should undergo an ECG. Properly conducted pre-participation
screening directed towards identification of cardiovascular risks for participation in cricket can reduce miserable
sudden cardiac death incidents. Future research is needed to identify any genetical and geographical relationship
between cardiovascular disease and sudden cardiac death among adolescent players.
103
Oral presentations
Comparison of cricket biomechanics factors in fast bowling between
young league fast bowlers and amateur fast bowlers
Theme: Biomechanics of Technique and Performance
Alwar THIAGARAJAN 1, Anees Sayed1, Gnanavel M.B1, Arumugam S1
1 Sri Ramachandra Arthroscopy & Sports Sciences Centre, Dept. of Arthroscopy & Sports Medicine,
Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, India
Background: At a regional level, the player selection trials aim to select players from the pool of amateur cricketers, the
selectors having the daunting task of identifying players based on talent and skill. Skilled fast bowlers are expected to
get more wickets than lesser skilled bowlers. Skilled bowlers are also expected to consistently maintain the length of
the ball without a significant loss in ball speed. Literature such as [1,2,3], had studied the differences between skilled vs
less skilled batsmen. However, the technical differences between skilled and less skilled fast bowlers have not been
adequately researched. If there are significant differences between the bowling biomechanics factors between skilled
and less skilled cricketers, then biomechanics could become a useful tool for talent screening and talent identification.
Aims: To compare the differences in bowling technique between young sub-elite (skilled) players and university level
amateur cricketers.
Methods: Ten players (16-25 years) were recruited for this pilot study: five were sub-elite fast bowlers, playing at the
regional level, and trained more than 3 times a week; and the other five were amateur cricketers, training less than
thrice a week. The bowlers were attached with 35 retro-reflective markers using the fullbody Plug-in-Gait marker set.
Two 1-inch retro-reflective tape squares were placed on to ball to measure ball release speed. The bowlers were
required to ball 6 deliveries at a good length while their bowling action was being captured with 12 Vicon 3D cameras.
The front foot ground reaction force was measured using an AMTI force plate. The fastest good length delivery from
each bowler was selected for this study. The 3D data processing was carried out using the Plug-in-Gait on Vicon Nexus
software. Bowlers were classified into bowling action types, Kinematic differences between the bowling groups were
quantified in terms of shoulder counter rotation (SCR), pelvic-shoulder separation angle, lateral flexion, front knee
angle, front foot vertical ground reaction force(vGRF) and ball release speed.
Results: Compared to the amateur bowlers, the sub-elite bowlers had a faster ball release speed (mean bowling speed
105 kmph compared to 101 kmph), lateral flexed less (mean lateral flexion at ball release of 46° compared to 53°) and
generated higher front foot vertical ground reaction forces (mean vGRF of 4.8 bodyweights compared to 3.3
bodyweights). The other biomechanical parameters did not show any significant differences between the two
population groups.
Discussion and Conclusions: Although the sub-elite bowlers were more trained and played more competition than the
amateur bowlers, there were no significant kinematic differences in technique between the two groups. However, only
one ball was analysed and the kinematic variables limited in number. The next step would be to analyse a large range of
variables for the 6 deliveries bowled. Analysing more deliveries is of importance since the variance of the
biomechanical parameters between the sub-elite and amateur bowlers may be a significant differentiating factor.
References:
Weissensteiner, J., Abernethy, B., Farrow, D., & Müller, S. (2008). The development of anticipation: A cross-sectional
examination of the practice experiences contributing to skill in cricket batting. Journal of Sport & Exercise
Psychology, 30(6), 663-684.
Taliep, M. S., St Clair Gibson, A., Gray, J., Van Der Merwe, L., Vaughan, C. L., Noakes, T. D., ... & John, L. R. (2008). Eventrelated potentials, reaction time, and response selection of skilled and less-skilled cricket batsmen. Perception,37(1),
96.
Müller, S., & Abernethy, B. (2006). Batting with occluded vision: An in situ examination of the information pick-up and
interceptive skills of high-and low-skilled cricket batsmen. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 9(6), 446-458.
104
Oral presentations
Podiatric assessment protocol for cricket players
Alwar THIAGARAJAN 1
1 Consultant Sports Physician, Sri Ramachandra Arthroscopy & Sports Sciences Centre, Sri
Ramachandra University, Chennai, India
Cricket being a sport where running is a common skill for bowling, fielding and batting activities needs methods of
injury prevention. Limited research has been done with respect to the plantar pressure patterns and its impact on the
performance and injury prevention aspect. The key scope of this work is to form a reliable protocol for the podiatric
assessment of cricket players. Various methods have been used to assess the foot and ankle including clinical
examination, video analysis of movement, foot imprint methods and foot pressure measurements. Pedobarography,
the study of foot plantar pressure has been widely used for the biomechanical analysis of gait and posture commonly
among diabetic population for ulcer prevention. Lately there have been a number of studies relating the foot pressure
and its impact in the kinetic chain to injury prevention and performance enhancement. Most of these research works
have concentrated on the running biomechanics. It is imperative that a standard protocol for podiatric assessment for
cricket is formulated. Our protocol involves a sports physician assessing the player up front with relevant clinical history
and an examination of the entire kinetic chain looking for limb length discrepancy, arches of the feet, and tell tale signs
like calluses or blisters and the wear pattern of the shoes. Biomechanical analysis using the Medilogic Insole Sport (inshoe Pressure scanner) at 300Hz is done to determine the plantar pressure patterns of the foot. The analysis will have
three different activities: a static measure and two trials of walking and running for a minute at 4 kmph and 10 kmph
respectively on the treadmill with the in-shoe pressure scanner on. The activity will be recorded using two video
cameras viewing from the rear and lateral sides of the player and the footage assessed for foot and ankle dynamics. The
bowling run-up is also assessed with the in-shoe scanner. A decision is then made based on the clinical and
biomechanics findings to use a corrective orthotic insole for the player. A customized insole is then designed using
Voxelcare software based on the assessment data and a foam box imprint of the player’s feet with the sub-talar joint
held in neutral position. A Polypropelene insole is custom milled under the supervision of a podiatrist using a CADCAM
milling machine. The player then is assessed with the customized insole using in-shoe pressure scanner. Normalization
of the peak pressure areas post orthosis introduction and a well-distributed plantar pressure pattern are to be
expected. Necessary finer alterations would be made based on the player’s adaptation and follow up. We have had
limited experience with this protocol but the initial results and the player feedbacks are encouraging. The ongoing
study on this protocol aims to make it sound by including a large pool of players and inter tester and intra tester
reliability measures.
105
Oral presentations
The influence of ball release estimation method on cricket bowler legality
Theme: Biomechanics of Technique and Performance
Denny J.M. WELLS1, Cyril J. Donnelly1, Andrew L. Dols1, Bruce C. Elliott1, Jacqueline A. Alderson1
1 The School of Sport Science, Exercise and Health, The University of Western Australia, Perth,
Australia
Aims: Determine: (1) the inter-tester repeatability of two subjective methods and accuracy of one quantitative method
for estimating ball release (BR) during cricket bowling. (2) The effect incorrectly identifying BR may have on estimating a
bowler’s elbow extension range (EER) (i.e. legality) during cricket bowling.
Methods: Phase 1: Kinematic data from five amateur cricket bowlers (22±1 yrs, 179±7 cm, 81.5±8.5 kg) were
synchronously captured with 10 Vicon T40 cameras and two Vicon Bonita cameras at 250 Hz. Three retro-reflective
1
markers were placed on the cricket ball and each participant’s hand, along with the UWA upper body marker set . 12
deliveries were collected per bowler.
Estimates of BR were obtained through three different methods (a) high-speed 2D video; (b) 3D stereoscopic data and
2
(c) a statistical method (incorporated 3D stereoscopic data within this method). For (c), the distance between the ball
and hand at upper arm horizontal (UAH) was used as the baseline distance for subsequent comparison. After UAH, each
frame in the time series (xj) was coupled with the following frame (xj+1). BR was estimated to occur when the hand-ball
distance in the time series significantly differed relative to baseline (α=0.001). The subjective estimates of BR – (a) and
3
(b) – were obtained visually by two independent investigators allowing for inter-tester repeatability to be calculated .
Phase 2: Kinematic data from five international level cricket bowlers was captured as per phase 1.
1
EER was calculated from UAH to BR using the UWA upper body modelling protocol . The frame defining BR was
estimated from high speed video as well as five frames preceding (-1 to -5) and following (+1 to +5) the original
estimate (n=11): BR-5,BR-4,BR-3,BR-2,BR-1,BR,BR+1,BR+2,BR+3,BR+4,BR+5
Results: Phase 1: (BR methods) (a) high speed 2D video mean inter-tester BR difference was 0.2 frames (Limits of
Agreement (LoA) ±0.9 frames), (b) 3D stereoscopic data: mean inter-tester difference was -0.4 frames (LoA ±2.8 frames)
and (c) the mean differences in BR between high speed 2D video and the statistical method was -4.9 frames (LoA ±3.3
frames).
Phase 2: When BR was estimated early in the delivery, EER estimates were consistently lower: BR-1=-1.1° (±1.2°); BR-2=2.4° (±2.7°); BR-3=-6.3° (±4.1°); BR-4=-9.1° (±5.1°); BR-5=-13.7° (±6.1°). When BR was estimated late in the delivery, EERs
were in general were not influenced: ranging from BR+1=0.0° (±0.1°); to BR+5=0.0° (±3.2°).
Discussion and Conclusions: The most reliable method for estimating BR during cricket bowling was high speed 2D
video (mean difference 0.2 frames, LoA ±0.9). The expected inter-tester variation in EER when using high speed 2D
video BR estimates was only one degree. From phase two of our analysis this variation is unlikely to result in a bowler
being wrongfully suspended from competition.
Still, further work is needed to develop a quantitative method for estimating BR, so to continually improve the intertester and inter-laboratory reliability for estimating EER (i.e. bowler legality) during the bowling delivery. Until then, it is
recommended high speed 2D video captured at 250 Hz remains the benchmark method for identifying BR during cricket
bowling.
References:
Reid, S., et al. (2010). Gait & Posture, 32(1), 10-17.
Dunnett, C. W. (1955). Journal of the American Statistical Association, 50(272), 1096-1121.
Bland, M. J., & Altman, D. G. (1986). The Lancet, 327(8476), 307-310.
106
Oral presentations
Does training improve pulmonary functions of Sri Lankan cricketers?
Theme: Exercise Physiology & Nutrition
Upendra WIJAYASIRI1, Savithri Wimalasekera2, Chelliah Thurairaja3
1 Sports medicine unit, colombo south teaching hospital, kalubowila, Sri Lanka
2 Department of physiology, faculty of medical sciences, University of Sri jayewardenepura,
Nugegoda, Sri Lanka
3 Post graduate institute of medicine, u\University of Colombo, Sri Lanka
Aims: To determine the status of the pulmonary functions amongst Sri Lankan division one club level cricketers in
comparison to matched controls. Training programmes of cricketers are planned to enhance and maximise the
performance. However optimal performance of Sri Lankan division one club level cricketers is not observed in the
competitive arena despite regular training. Performance depends on the physical fitness and technical training.
Although techniques are addressed by training programmes, the player’s physical fitness may not be optimized.
Methodology: Sri Lankan division one club level cricketers (n = 30) were studied. Baseline data were collected by a
questionnaire and clinical examination. Pulmonary functions were assessed by a Vitallograph spirometer. Results were
compared with age, height, weight and gender matched controls (n= 30). Ethical approval for the study was granted by
the Ethical Review committee of the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka. Data
were analyzed using SPSS version 16 statistical package using Students t- test.
Results: Inspiratory function as indicated by the Forced Inspiratory Vital Capacity (FIVC) (3.781+/- 0.65), Forced Vital
st
Capacity (FVC) (3.93+/- 0.64) and Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV1) (3.56+/-0.43) were significantly higher
amongst the cricketers (p< 0.05). The small air way function as determined by mid stream Forced Expiratory Flow
(FEF25%-75%) (4.12+/-0.79) of the cricketers was similar to the controls (p>0.05).The expiratory muscle efficiency as
indicated by Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) (553.18+/-72.55) and FEV1/ FVC (89.24+/- 5.44) ratio was not statistically
significantly different between the cricketers and the controls (p> 0.05).
Discussion: Better training should be associated with an optimal improvement of respiratory function; ie. Increasing the
1,
depth of breathing via high tidal volume and increased Vital Capacity . In order to achieve an optimal vital capacity
(VC); while the Inspiratory Capacity (IC) is increased the Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) has to be proportionately
lower level. For that the abdominal expiratory muscles will have to be act in there optimal strength. This will further
cause the elevated intra-abdominal pressure (Pab) and the diaphragm is lengthened at end-expiration enabling this
muscle to operate near its optimal length for force generation during the ensuing inspiration potentially sparing the
2,3,4
extra inpiratory muscles .
The results indicate that the respiratory efficiency of the cricketers had not optimally improved with training. Although
the inspiratory capacity is improved our cricketer’s expiratory efficiency is not significantly improved. Therefore at the
end of the breathing cycle the ERV will be in high level. That will cause the suboptimal function of the diaphragm and
the player will have to use the extra inspiratory muscles during the ensuing inspiration causing more energy
expenditure.
Conclusion: The study concludes that training programmes for the club level cricketers must consist of exercise
schedules to optimize the strength of respiratory muscles especially the abdominal expiratory muscles. This will achieve
optimal pulmonary function amongst cricketers. Improvement of pulmonary function may in turn promote better
4
performance of cricketers at competition .
References:
George et al, 2014 Evaluation of the effect of exercise on pulmonary function in young healthy adults, International
Journal of Biomedical and Advance Research Vol 5, No 6
nd
Vincent et al, 2012 ACSM’s advanced exercise physiology. American College of Sports Medicine, 2 edition, 242-296
107
José et al, 2001 Inspiratory Capacity, Dynamic Hyperinflation, Breathlessness, and Exercise Performance during the 6Minute-Walk Test in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care
Medicine, Vol. 163, No. 6
Illi et al, 2012 Effect of Respiratory Muscle Training on Exercise Performance in Healthy Individuals; A Systematic
Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Med; 42 (8): 707-724
108
Oral presentations
How to recognise a rheumatic condition masquerading as a sports injury?
Harindu WIJESINGHE1
1 Nawaloka Hospital, Sri Lanka
Not every cricketer who presents to a sports doctor or physiotherapist has a sports related condition. For instance, in
one of our case studies, an international fast bowler in his prime developed a painful swollen knee, He was treated with
physiotherapy, medications, plasma injections and arthroscopy, but there was no improvement in symptoms. So he
was then sent to a Rheumatologist, who diagnosed Gouty arthritis of the knee. Treatment of this condition was
successful, and he returned to international cricket after a two-year absence. Any delay in diagnosing rheumatic
conditions will prolong treatment, which can significantly affect a cricketer’s playing career- in some cases, this can be
career threatening. Those working with injured cricketers, should be aware that rheumatic diseases affect the
musculoskeletal system and can manifest as sports injuries A systematic literature review shows case reports of
athletes who presented with back pain, sciatica, hip pain, knee pain, neck pain, shoulder, elbow, heel, ankle pain and
stress fractures who had an underlying rheumatic disease. The diseases seen include ankylosing spondylitis (AS), gout,
chondrocalcinosis, psoriatic arthritis, psoriatic enthesopathy, reactive arthritis and early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) [1]
Rarely condition such as joint infections (bacterial and tuberculosis), malignancies (osteosarcoma) ,osteoid osteomas
may present as sport injuries [2] Most rheumatic conditions are autoimmune. In these diseases the bodies’ own
immune system mounts a reaction against ones own musculoskeletal system. If not diagnosed early and controlled the
activated immune cells will destroy cartilage, ligaments and bone within the joint. This leads to painful swollen
debilitated joints. Currently damaged cartilage can neither be regrown nor replaced and this may lead to a permanently
damaged joint. An early diagnosis of the disease is difficult, as the typical features of these diseases may not be seen
during the early stages. Treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAIDs) drugs may mask these conditions [3].
Diagnosis requires a combination of history taking, examination and blood reports to look for elevated acute-phase
reactants. Symptoms such as lack of significant trauma, early morning joint stiffness, constitutional symptoms and
persistent symptoms despite activity modification should alert one to the possibility of one of these diseases. In certain
circumstances radiographs (X-rays), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bones scans, laboratory testing for
autoantibodies, joint aspiration with fluid analysis and surgical biopsies may be needed. Treatment involves controlling
theses diseases with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). These drugs can be given orally and as
injections. Drug treatment is usually continued long term with frequent blood monitoring to detect drug side effects.
While on treatment the athlete can start rehabilitation followed by a return to sport.
References:
Jennings F1, Lambert E, Fredericson M. Rheumatic diseases presenting as sports-related injuries. Sports Med 2008; 38
(11): 917-930
Macintyre J, Kwiatkowski J. The Patient with Long Standing Symptoms. P-878-886, Clinical Sports Medicine (Brukner
and Khan Fourth Edition)
Challenges of pain masking in the management of soft tissue disorders: optimizing patient outcomes with a multitargeted approach Current Medical Research & Opinion Vol. 30, No. 5, 2014, 953–959
109
Poster presentations
PO01 | The kinematics of acceleration during a quick single following a
static or rolling start in premier league batsmen
Theme: Biomechanics of Technique and Performance
Samuel CALLAGHAN1, Matthew Jeffriess2, Robert Lockie 3
1 Edith Cowan University, Western Australia, Australia
2 University of Technology Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
3 California State University, Northridge, California, USA
Aims: Limited-over cricket requires batsmen to complete numerous maximal, quick single sprints during an innings. As a
quick single occurs over a relatively short distance (17.68 m), a batsman’s ability to accelerate over the initial 5 m is a
crucial factor to the success of the quick single, and by extension the team’s scoring rate. Faster acceleration
performance has been associated with certain sprint kinematic characteristics (e.g. greater step lengths and
frequencies, and joint ranges of motion). Current coaching practices suggest that non-striking batsmen should adopt a
walking (i.e. rolling) start for a quick single as the bowler enters their delivery stride. However, the impact of the
walking start for a quick single has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, the study aim was to identify the
implications of a rolling start upon quick single performance, in addition to step and lower-limb kinematics, when
compared to a static start in non-striking premier league batsmen.
Methods: Fourteen males (age=23±4.38 years; body mass=80.05±10.56 kg; height=1.83±0.06 m) completed three
17.68-m maximal sprints using either a static (stationary, side-on start position) or rolling (dynamic walking start as per
match conditions) start. Subjects wore leg guards and carried a bat for all trials. Timing gates recorded 0-5 and 0-17.68
m time. Step and lower-limb kinematics were recorded within the first and second steps via a three-dimensional
motion capture system. Paired samples t-tests were used to determine significant (p<0.05) differences between the
static and rolling starts. Effect sizes (d) were also calculated for the between-start position comparison.
Results: The rolling start led to significantly quicker 0-5 (p=0.001, d=1.71) and 0-17.68 m (p<0.001, d=1.52) times, as
well as a 20% longer first (p<0.001, d=1.77), and 6% longer second (p=0.004, d=0.64) step. Second step frequency was
significantly higher (p=0.006, d=0.90) and contact time significantly lower (p=0.003, d=1.20) following the rolling start.
The static start featured a significantly greater degree of first step drive leg knee extension (p=0.019, d=0.38) and ankle
plantar flexion (p=0.018, d=0.63) when compared to the rolling start.
Discussion and Conclusions: The faster times recorded for the 0-5 and 0-17.68 m intervals following the rolling start
highlight the importance for batsmen to initiate movement during a bowler’s delivery stride to aid acceleration during
the quick single. The decrease in time for the 0-5 m interval is partially a function of the increased first and second step
lengths generated from the rolling start. Additionally, the greater second step frequency and lower contact time
signifies that the use of the rolling start allowed batsmen to transition into sprint kinematics typically associated with
later stages of acceleration, decreasing the time necessary to cover the intervals within the quick single. The greater
drive leg knee extension and ankle plantar flexion following the static start is indicative of the kinematics required for
initiating a sprint from a stationary position. Nonetheless, due to the positive changes to step kinematics, this research
demonstrates the value for batsmen to use a rolling start from the non-strikers end to increase the likelihood of
successful quick singles.
110
Poster presentations
PO02 | Biomechanical analysis of cricket fast bowling in university level
bowlers in India
Theme: Biomechanics of Technique and Performance
Anees SAYED1, Alwar Thiagarajan1, Gnanavel M.B1, Sivaraman Arumugam1
1 Sri Ramachandra Arthroscopy and Sports Sciences Centre, Dept of Arthroscopy and Sports
Medicine, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, India
Background: Cricket fast bowling is a physically demanding activity, requiring the bowler to repeatedly bend their spine
[1]. Injury risk to the lumbar spine is associated with high workloads and certain technique factors [1, 2]. Previous
biomechanics research on fast bowling has identified technical factors which predispose the bowlers to injuries, and
also found some kinematic variables which correlates with ball speed [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. A limitation of this research has
been its subject pool, which has mostly focused on sub-elite and elite players, so that the bowling mechanics of
University level bowlers is relatively unknown.
Aims: The purpose of this study was to analyse the bowling mechanics of university level cricketers in India, examining
factors such as bowling action type, shoulder counter rotation (SCR), pelvic-shoulder separation angle, lateral flexion,
front knee angle, front foot vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) and ball release speed.
Methods: Twelve fast bowlers between the ages of 17-25 were recruited for this study. The bowlers were fitted with 35
retro-reflective markers according to the full-body Plug-in-Gait marker set. Two 1-inch retro-reflective tape squares
were placed on to ball to measure ball release speed. The bowlers were then asked to ball 6 deliveries on a good
length. Their bowling actions were captured with 12 Vicon 3D cameras; while the front foot ground reaction force was
measured using an AMTI force plate. The best delivery from each bowler was selected for the study based on the
completeness of data capture and the ball release speed. The 3D kinematic data was processed with the Plug-in-Gait
pipeline on Vicon Nexus software.
Results: The kinematics of the bowling action during their six deliveries were relatively similar, however the delivery
length was variable. Of the 12 bowlers, 6 had a semi-open bowling action, Five were front-on, and only one player had a
mixed bowling action (SCR > 30º). All the bowlers had a pelvic-shoulder separation angle at back foot contact of below
30º. Ten of the twelve bowlers had a maximum lateral flexion of more than 40º, as well as flexed their knee by more
than 20º between front foot contact and ball release. The ball release speed ranged between 86.8 and 109.4 km/h. The
front foot vGRF ranged between 3.1 and 6.2 bodyweights.
Discussion and Conclusions: In literature, high lateral flexion and a mixed bowling action had been identified as one of
the few lower back injury risk factors in fast bowlers [1,3,5]. Based on the literature, the 10 bowlers who had lateral
flexion in excess of 40°, out of whom one also had a mixed bowling action, would be at an increased risk of lower back
injury. All the bowlers flexed their front knee to absorb some of the ground reaction force upon impact. Even though
the results show that amateur bowlers may have a bowling technique that predisposes them to injury, none of them
complained of any overuse injuries. Amateur fast bowlers may have relatively fewer injuries compared to their elite
counterparts due to a combination of less workload, bowling with less speed, and the use of more knee flexion to
attenuate ground reaction forces.
References:
Foster, D., John, D., Elliott, B., Ackland, T., & Fitch, K. (1989). Back injuries to fast bowlers in cricket: a prospective
study. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 23(3), 150-154
Johnson, M., Ferreira, M., & Hush, J. (2012). Lumbar vertebral stress injuries in fast bowlers: a review of prevalence and
risk factors. Physical Therapy in Sport, 13(1), 45-52
Ranson C.A, Burnett A.F, King, Patel N, & O'Sullivan P.B (2008). The relationship between bowling action classification
and three-dimensional lower trunk motion in fast bowlers in cricket. Journal of sports sciences, 26(3) 267-276
Worthington, P. J., King, M. A., &Ranson, C. A. (2013). Relationships between fast bowling technique and ball release
speed in cricket
111
Ferdinands, R. E., Kersting, U., & Marshall, R. N. (2009). Three-dimensional lumbar segment kinetics of fast bowling in
cricket. Journal of biomechanics, 42(11), 1616-1621.
112
Poster presentations
PO03 | 2D and 3D motion analysis of Cricket fast bowling in India
Theme: Biomechanics of Technique and Performance
Tvisha PARIKH1, Sidharth Unnithan1, Alwar Thiagarajan1, Anees Sayed1, Sivaraman Arumugam1
1 Sri Ramachandra Arthroscopy and Sports Sciences Centre, Dept. of Arthroscopy and Sports
Medicine, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, India
Background: The fast bowling action involves the 3-dimensional rotation of the trunk, upper limbs and lower limbs. This
complicates the assessment of bowling technique by the naked eye, which depends on a 2D perspective, particularly
when it comes to evaluating bowling legality [1]. Similarly, action classification and lumbar injury risk factors cannot be
determined accurately without formal testing in a biomechanics laboratory capable of 3D motion analysis [2], a facility
that is generally not available in India. Cricket analysis in India is generally restricted to 2D analysis to keep costs within
limited budgets and due to limited availability of a 3D Biomechanics laboratory. However, in view of the professional
level at which Cricket is played in India and the extensive 2D analysis which is being conducted at various elite and subelite levels, it is important that the validity of the 2D data be established. This is one of the first Biomechanical studies
done in India, comparing the 2D and 3D mechanics of Indian fast bowlers.
Aims: To compare 2D video analysis and 3D motion analysis of Cricket fast bowlers.
Methods: 10 male university level fast bowlers participated in this study. The players were attached with the Plug-in
Gait model marker set [3]. Twelve Vicon 3D cameras and 2 Bonita 2D cameras were used to track the markers on the
bowlers using Nexus software. 3D and 2D analysis were carried out using Nexus and Kinovea software, respectively.
Bowlers were asked to bowl 6 balls each of good length, full length and short length deliveries as if under match
conditions. 2D and 3D Kinematics data were processed to quantify the type of Bowling Action, the amount of Elbow
Extension and Lateral Trunk Flexion.
Results: Action classification was determined by 3D motion analysis. Five bowlers had a Semi-Open and 4 had a FrontOn action as described by Portus et al [4]. One bowler had mixed bowling action, which is a risk factor for injury and
important to identify. Nine out of ten bowlers were found to have excess Lateral Flexion (>40⁰) in 3D, whereas 7 were
detected to have excess lateral flexion in 2D. There were significant discrepancies in the evaluation of bowling legality.
The 2D and 3D analyses identified different bowlers with elbow extension angles in excess of 15°.
Discussion and Conclusions: Although 2D video analysis is easier and less costly to operate, the kinematic parameters
essential for determining bowling injury risk and bowling legality require 3D motion analysis for an accurate
assessment. In this study, significantly different results were found for both methods, the most problematic associated
with bowling legality, where different bowlers were deemed to have illegal actions. Although 2D analysis may
sometimes be used as a preliminary screening tool of bowling actions in the hands of an experienced Biomechanist, it is
recommended that more Cricket organizations in India seek the assistance of 3D motion analysis systems to evaluate
the performance of bowlers. Although this study has used the Plug-in Gait for the elbow angle measurement in the pilot
group of Cricketers, with the recent availability of the new accurate International Cricket Council model, the same could
be used in future.
References:
Aginsky K.D., Noakes T.D. (2008) why it is difficult to detect an illegally bowled cricket delivery with either the naked eye
or usual 2D video analysis, Br.J.Sports Med.44: 420-425
Ferdinands R.E.D., Kersting U., Marshall R.N. (2009) Three dimensional lumbar segment kinetics of fast bowling in
cricket. Journal of Biomechanics 42: (11), 1616-1621
Stephenson J.L. , Lamontagne A., De Serres S.J. (2009) The coordination of upper and lower limb movements during gait
in healthy and stroke individuals. Gait & Posture, 29: (1), 11–16
Portus, M. R., Mason, B. R., Elliott, B. C., Pfitzner, M. C. and Done, R. P.(2004) Technique Factors Related to Ball Release
Speed and Trunk Injuries in High Performance Cricket Fast Bowlers, Sports Biomechanics,3:(2), 263 - 284
113
Poster presentations
PO04 | The validity of using session RPE to monitor the training load of
medium-fast bowlers
Theme: Exercise Physiology & Nutrition
Will Vickery1, Ben DASCOMBE1, Rob Duffield2
1 Applied Sports Science and Exercise Testing Laboratory, School of Environmental and Life Sciences,
Faculty of Science and IT, University of Newcastle, Ourimbah, NSW, Australia
2 Sport and Exercise Discipline Group, UTS: Health, University of Technology, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Aims: There are numerous methods currently available for monitoring an athlete’s training load (TL) (Borresen &
Lambert, 2008) with session-RPE (sRPE) being a popular method adopted throughout a range of team sports. However,
no research has examined the validity of sRPE amongst cricket players. Therefore, this study aimed to determine if any
relationships existed between sRPE and various measures of internal and external TL amongst medium-fast bowlers
during net-based cricket training.
Methods: Measures of internal and external TL were recorded during typical net-based sessions (duration: 42 ± 12 min)
from 12 medium-fast bowlers (22.6 ± 4.5 yr; 1.91 ± 0.04 m; 85.1 ± 9.2 kg). Internal-TL was quantified from measures of
heart rate (Edward’s TRIMP method, mean heart rate) whilst external-TL (total distance covered, high-intensity
distance, number of high-intensity efforts, Player Load™) was quantified using 10 Hz GPS devices. The number of balls
bowled per session by bowlers was determined via post-training video analysis. Session-RPE TL was calculated by a
rating of perceived exertion (CR-10) multiplied by the session duration (Foster et al., 1995). Pearson’s product moment
correlations were calculated between sRPE and measures of internal- and external-TL.
Results: Medium strength correlations (p < 0.05) were reported between internal-TL (TRIMP :r = 0.40, mean heart rate:
r = -0.44) and sRPE. Additionally, a significant correlation (p < 0.05) was reported between the various measures of
external-TL (total distance: r = 0.75, high-intensity distance: 0.64, number of high-intensity efforts: r = 0.50, Player
Load™: r =0.70) and sRPE. Although, only a medium strength correlation (r = 0.48) was reported between the number of
balls bowled by medium-fast bowlers and sRPE.
Discussion and Conclusions: While only a moderate correlation was found between internal-TL and sRPE within
medium-fast bowlers, large to very large correlations were observed between sRPE and external measures of TL. This
may be due to the intermittent, short sprint movement patterns that are typically interspersed with long periods of
low-intensity recovery which make the sport of cricket unique. As such, this intermittent movement pattern is likely to
result in a highly variable heart rate that may affect the internal-TL measures. The similar moderate correlation
between the number of balls delivered and the number of HI efforts is likely explained by the run-up leading into the
bowling action. Based on these results it appears that the use of sRPE is valid for monitoring TL in cricket medium-fast
bowlers during net-based sessions.
References:
Borresen, J., & Lambert, M. I. (2008). Quantifying training load: a comparison of subjective and objective methods. Int J
Sports Physiol Perform, 3, 16-30
Foster, C., Hector, L. L., Welsh, R., Schrager, M., Green, M. A., & Snyder, A. C. (1995). Effects of specific versus crosstraining on running performance. Eur J App Phys Occ Phys, 70 (4), 367-372.
114
Poster presentations
PO05 | Effect of body composition on vo2max in under 16 and under 19
male cricket players
Anand DATE1
1 National Cricket Academy (BCCI), Bangalore, India
Aims: Due to the lifestyle changes over the years, adolescent athletes have shown alterations in the physical and
& O2max), among
physiological attributes such as increased fat mass (FM) and decreased maximal aerobic capacity ( V
others. Such alterations have resulted in significant adjustments in approach to adolescent fitness training. Previous
studies that focused on examining aforementioned scenario have reported adiposity being one of the major
determinants of aerobic capacity in adolescents (1). On the other hand; studies that were conducted on older adults,
& O2max (2, 3). Moreover;
and used training induced methodologies, have shown little to no relation between FM and V
to the author’s knowledge, no research has been done to understand the relationship between body composition and
aerobic capacity in young cricket players. This study aims to examine the relationship between the body composition
& O2max in under-16 and under-19 national-level male cricket players. It was hypothesized that FM will
and estimated V
& O2max.
negatively impact estimated V
Methods: Twenty Six, national level, male ‘’under 19’’ cricket players with an average age of 18.31 years (±0.83Yr) and
twenty five, national level, male ‘’under 16’’cricket players with an average age of 15.83 years (±0.38Yr) participated in
the study. Seven-site skinfold test (skinfold test), and Jackson-Pollock equation was used to determine the body density.
Body fat percentage was determined by using the Brozek equation. The Skinfold test was conducted by a trained
individual (the author) with an experience of testing in professional athletic settings. The ‘’YO-YO Intermittent Recovery
& O2max. Pearson Correlations were run to determine the relationship
Test-Level-1’’ was conducted to estimate the V
& O2max and Multiple Regressions were run to further test the hypothesis.
between FM and V
& O2max in under-16 athletes. It was also
Results: Strong, negative correlation (r=-0.55) was observed between FM and V
& O2max (β= -0.65). Correlation in fat free
observed that changes in the fat mass significantly and negatively influenced V
& O2max was weak among under-16 athletes. Under-19 athletes reported weak negative correlation
mass (FFM) and V
& O2max.
(r= -0.33) between FM and V
Discussion and Conclusions: Maximal aerobic capacity is primarily limited by the ability of cardio respiratory system to
deliver and utilize oxygen. However, metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscles play a critical role in influencing overall
aerobic fitness (4). The ‘’Under-16’’ age group typically consisted of athletes with little to no training age, as opposed to
the athletes from ‘’Under-19’’ age group; and thus, provides physical performance markers that are least influenced by
training interventions. This may indicate that greater training age and physiological adaptations of older athletes may
& O2max. While little metabolic adaptations in skeletal
have resulted in the reduction of negative effects of FM on V
& O2max in younger athletes. This is in contrast
muscles due to lack of training; may have resulted in FM influencing V
with the observations made in ‘’under-19’’ age group of this study, and in studies that used training induced
methodologies on adult athletes. This may indicate that, the training interventions for adolescent athletes; especially in
‘’under-16’ age group of male cricket players, may incorporate training methodologies and nutritional interventions
that specifically target positive changes in the body composition, through reductions in FM and increments in FFM.
References:
Marta cc. Et al. (2013). Effects of body fat and dominant somatotype on explosive strength and aerobic capacity in
trainability in prepubescent children. Journal of strength & conditioning research, 27(12), 3233-3244.
&
Ramanna et al. (2004). Effect of changes in body composition profile on Vo2max and maximal work performance in
athletes. Journal of exercise physiology online, 7(1), 34-39.
Thakur js., yadav rc., singh vkr. (2010). Influence of body composition on the dimensions of Vo2max. Vsrd technical
and non-technical journal, 1(2), 72-77.
Bassett Dr. JR., Howley ET. (2000). Limiting factors for maximum oxygen uptake and determinants for endurance
performance. medicine & science in sports & exercise, 32(1), 70-84.
&
115
Poster presentations
PO06 | Lumbar lordosis and lower back pain in junior cricket bowlers
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
Mark HECIMOVICH1, Norman STOMSKi2
1 Murdoch University, School of Psychology and Exercise Science, Murdoch, Australia
2 Murdoch University, School of Health Sciences, Murdoch, Australia
Aims: Young cricket bowlers are at great risk of injury to the back. Biomechanically research has attempted to find a
relationship between lower back injury, lower back pain (LBP), and postural imbalances such as lumbar hyper-lordosis,
1
kyphosis, and sway back for the general population. These imbalances may be the result of muscular asymmetry (core
2
and hip strength and flexibility, and balance) . For example, lumbar hyper-lordosis and anterior pelvic tilt results in
hamstring tissue pathology suggesting a linked relationship between hyper-lordosis, tight hamstrings and LBP. Another
relationship is the link between weak abdominal strength (core) and lumber hyper-lordosis permitting an anterior
pelvic tilt. Therefore, due to the prevalence of LBP in young cricketers and the link between low back, postural
imbalances (core and hip strength and flexibility), balance, and lumbar-hyper-lordosis the the aim of this study was
examine influencing factors on LBP and lumbar lordosis with a focus on hip and core strength and flexibility.
Methods: Thirty-four junior-level cricket players aged 13-16 participated in this Human ethics approved study.
Participants underwent a series of musculoskeletal assessments (lordosis measurement, spine [core] and hip strength
and flexibility and balance). Linear regression examined the relationship between lumbar lordosis and ability to contract
core muscles (via Transverse abdominis, Side Bridge and lumbopelvic control), balance (Star Excursion Balance test
[SEBT]) and lower back pain.
Results: The ANOVA demonstrated those with low back pain experienced significantly higher levels of lumbar lordosis
(p=.000), significantly higher hip external rotation on the front foot side, increased lumbar lateral flexion on the front
foot side, and lower levels of front foot anterior direction in SEBT. Results from the linear regression analysis revealed
2
that only lower back pain was associated with lumbar lordosis (R = 0.45) indicating that previous lower back pain
accounted for 45% variation in lumbar lordosis.
Discussion and Conclusions: In this study 18 of the 34 participants reported having lower back pain during the previous
season and demonstrated significantly higher levels of lumbar lordosis. Widely accepted is the relationship between
3
abdominal and back musculatures (core) on lumbar lordosis , however, no relationship was demonstrated other than
lower back pain. As hip and core strength and flexibility were not an influencing factor on lumbar lordosis, they can
influence its degree and thus future studies should continue to examine this relationship. However, issues such as
accuracy of measuring lordotic angle and influencing factors such as core strength need be scrutinized for future
research in order to determine the most sensitive techniques to use.
The results indicate that a focus on future research should be on developing accurate methods of detection, normalised
standards of lumbar lordotic angle which will better inform rehabilitation training programs.
References:
Mulhearn S, George K. Abdo 1999
Lee CS, et al. 2001
Jull GA, Janda V. 1987
116
Poster presentations
PO07 | Intra-rater reliability and concurrent validity of a tape measure and
digital inclinometer measurement method for lateral lumbar range of
motion in junior level cricket players
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
Mark HECIMOVICH1, Jeff Herbert1
1 Murdoch University, School of Psychology and Exercise Science, Murdoch, Australia
Aims: In cricket, low back pain is a common problem in male and female cricket bowlers, in particular fast bowlers 1.
Therefore, assessments of the lumbar spine are routinely performed as a component of a pre-season screening 2. In
view of the facility and accuracy required for these assessments, the aim of this study was to assess the intra-rater
reliability and concurrent validity of a newly-developed tape measure method (fingertip-to-floor [FTF]) and digital
inclinometry (DI) with junior-level cricket players.
Methods: Thirty-four junior-level cricket players (13-16 years) participated in this study. Lateral flexion of the lumbar
spine was measured using two methods simultaneously: the index test measuring the FTF distance at maximal lateral
flexion, and DI to use the criterion comparison to determine of lateral range of motion. Both methods were completed
with participants standing, their measurements obtained by two examiners simultaneously. Pearson correlation
analysis was divided into Front Foot (FF) and Back Foot (BF) measures. ICCs at 95% CIs were calculated to assess intraexaminer reliability. To assess measurement precision, the standard error of measurement (SEM) was calculated as
Standard Deviation (SD) x √1-ICC, the minimal detectable change (MDC) was calculated as 1.96 x √ 2 x SEM, and Bland
and Altman, bias, and limits of agreement (95%).
Results: The correlation between FF and BF measurements in centimeters and degrees (FF: Mean = 42.96 cm, SD 5.02;
Mean = 12.97° SD 3.95), r = .922, p = < .000, with R2 = .850, (BF: Mean = 42.91 SD 4.54; deg: Mean = 12.97° SD 3.95), r =
.965, p = < .000, with R2 = .931. The intra-rater reliability (ICC 3, 1) reported substantial agreement for all measures. The
SEM for the FF and BF tape measure were 2.01 cm and 1.71 cm with an MDC ranging from 5.55 cm (FF) and 4.73 cm
(BF). The SEM for FF and BF DI were 1.00° and 1.09° and MDC of 2.77° (FF) and 3.01° (BF).
Discussion and Conclusions: The ICCs for both methods demonstrated substantial agreement between the two
methods. This indicates that a clinician could use either method to measure the side bending of the spine in a standing
position, as both are reliable and valid. In clinical practice the use of field-based assessments on the athletic population
is popular for numerous reasons such as reduction on the reliance on expensive and bulky equipment and the ability to
conduct the assessments out of the office. For pre-season screening the use of measurement methods require
procedures and equipment that are accurate and reliable in order to better inform on the interpretations obtained.
Therefore this study contributes important information for the development of reliable screening methods, such as the
newly developed lateral spinal flexion method, for use with a healthy cricket population and, more specifically, fast
bowlers who are considerably more likely to sustain a serious lower back injury and demonstrate excessive lateral
flexion.
References:
Orchard J, et al. 2002. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 36(4), 270-274
Dennis RJ, et al. 2008. Physical Therapy in Sport, 9(25), 25-33
117
Poster presentations
PO08 | The reliability of self reported measures of exposure in elite
adolescent cricketers
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
Steve MCCAIG1, Anna Warren1, Craig Ranson2
1 Science and Medicine department, ECB, Loughborough, United Kingdom
2 Sports injury Research Group, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, United Kingdom
Background: High bowling and throwing workloads have been identified as a risk factor in injuries related to these tasks
(Dennis et al, 2005, Saw et al, 2011). As there is often a lack of support staff to record this information in development
athletes, there is a need to rely on self-reported measures of exposure and workloads. However, this form of
monitoring is at risk of recall bias and may not provide reliable information.
Aims: To determine the reliability of self-reported cricket training and match workloads in elite adolescent cricketers.
Methods: Part 1. Match and training-camp workloads; the participants were involved in an overseas training camp as
part of a national development programme. They were informed at the start of the camp that at the end of each week
of the camp that they would be asked to forward weekly workloads in a text message to the tour physiotherapist. They
were to include for each day whether they played a match or had a cricket training or fitness session. They were asked
to describe if they batted, bowled, fielded and threw on each day and if they bowled how many overs they bowled. The
tour physiotherapist also separately recorded each player’s daily workload. The workloads reported by the participants
were then compared to that of the tour physiotherapist.
Part 2. Players involved in a National development programme were informed prior to three training sessions and three
matches that they would asked at the end of each day how many throws they completed that day. The actual number
of throws performed by each player was recorded, either directly by an observer, or from review of match video. The
number of self-reported throws will be compared to the actual number of throws using descriptive statistics and,
correlation co-efficient or agreement scores.
Results: (Available October 2014) the reliability of self-reported measures compared to support staff recorded
measures will be presented for match and training days, over per day and throws per day.
Discussion and Conclusions: This study will provide insight into the usefulness of self–reported measures of exposure
and bowling and throwing workloads. The results will be valuable for future injury surveillance and risk factor studies in
cricketers.
References:
Dennis et al (2005) Is bowling workload a risk factor for injury to Australian junior fast bowlers? BJSM
Saw, R. et al. (2011). Throwing workload and injury risk in elite cricketers. BJSM.
118
Poster presentations
PO09 | The biomechanics of the combined elevation test
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
Steve MCCAIG1, Sam Allen2, Gemma Philips2
1 Science and Medicine Department, ECB, Loughborough, United Kingdom
2 Biomechanics Department, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom
Background: The Combined Elevation test is a musculoskeletal (MSK) screening tool proposed to measure a
combination of thoracic extension, glenohumeral joint (GHJ) flexion and, scapular retraction and upwards rotation
(Dennis et al, 2008a). The test is used across an array of sports primarily for its quantification of thoracic spine
extension range. Two formats of test performance, forehead and chin, and two outcome measurements, ulnar styloid
(US) height and humeral angle have been reported. Whilst the reliability of the test has been reported (Dennis et al,
2008b), it has not been subjected to any previous biomechanical investigation.
Aims: This study aimed to identify the contributory movement patterns of the Combined Elevation Test, with particular
attention to thoracic extension. Potential relationships between the Combined Elevation Test and GHJ rotation will also
be studied.
Methods: Using a Vicon motion capture system, thoracic extension values of 12 asymptomatic males, elicited during
both positions of the Combined Elevation Test, were compared with maximal range in four-point kneeling. A
comparison between US height and humeral angle outcome measurements; and the geometric make-up of the US
height relative to individual joint movement contributions was conducted. Correlations were also performed to assess
the relationship of the Combined Elevation test with GHJ rotation range of motion
Results: A mean of 10° thoracic of extension was achieved in both forehead (±6°) and chin position6°), representative of
77% maximal thoracic extension. Stepwise regression analysis demonstrated 75% explained variance in the US height
was attributed to shoulder retraction, with 15% and 9% from shoulder and elbow flexion respectively. Thoracic
extension was not considered a significant factor in US determination. Paired Student's t-tests showed no significant
difference between thoracic extension range and US height between test positions (t (34) =0.9, p=0.4). A significant
difference in the US height reached between the Combined Elevation Test performed in the forehead (22.46 cm ±7.84
cm) and the chin (18.95 cm ±8.79 cm) position (t(37)=4.488, p<0.0005). Strong positive correlations were demonstrated
between: US height and humeral height (r=0.970, p<0.0005); and, US height and total GHJ rotation range (r=0.578,
p<0.0005). A moderate correlation between US height and GHJ External rotation was demonstrated (r=0.422, p<0.05).
Conclusion: The Combined Elevation test performed in either the forehead or chin position results in comparable
thoracic extension range. However, as performance on the Combined Elevation test is poorly related to thoracic spine
extension range, its use as a tool to assess thoracic extension range is questionable.
References:
Dennis et al (2008a) Use of Field Based Tests to Identify Risk Factors for Injury to Fast Bowlers in Cricket. BJSM
Dennis et al (2008b) the reliability of musculoskeletal screening tests used in cricket. PTIS
119
Poster presentations
PO10 | Pictorial MR imaging findings in cricket players presented with
knee injuries
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
Mahesh PRAKASH, Pankaj Gupta, Sharad Prabhakar1, Mandeep Dhillon1, Niranjan Khandelwal
1 Department of radiodiagnosis and orthopaedics, postgraduate institute of medical education and
research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India
Aims: To illustrate the various imaging findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in cricket players who presented
with knee injury.
Background: MRI plays an important role in the evaluation of acute knee injury and shown to be highly accurate in
detecting injuries to various knee structures. MRI is very useful to evaluate injuries to bone, cartilage, menisci, cruciate
ligaments, collateral ligaments and others soft tissue structures of knee. In this new era it is very important for the
sports medicine consultant to have basic knowledge about various MR imaging features of common injuries which is
useful for diagnosis and management of these injuries. In this poster presentation, we will demonstrate various imaging
findings in common knee injuries seen on MRI.
Summary: Bone injuries in form of contusions and fracture are well demonstrated by MRI. Cartilage injury can be seen
as focal disruption or signal change. Various types of meniscal tear like annual tear, horizontal, longitudinal tear etc. are
seen as abnormal signal and disruption of normal morphology. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear is diagnosed by
alteration of its signal intensity, morphology and course of ligament. Buckling of posterior cruciate ligament, uncovered
lateral meniscus and anterior tibial subluxation are some indirect signs of ACL tear. Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)
tear is uncommon. MRI can depict anatomic disruption, increased signal intensity and avulsion. The most valuable signs
in detecting Medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury are focal disruption of fibers, thickening, and abnormal increased
signal within and surrounding the MCL. Lateral collateral ligament (LCL) tears are associated with injury to other
posterior-lateral structures of knee.LCL tear can be partial and complete. In complete disruptions, the LCL demonstrates
a wavy contour and loss of ligamentous continuity. Tendons and muscle injuries are also well picked up by MRI.
Conclusion: As we know that MRI is best modality to demonstrate injuries to various components of knee joint. Basic
knowledge of common findings on MRI is useful for sports medicine practitioners.
120
Poster presentations
PO11 | Epidemiology and the cause of varicocele and low back pain in
cricket athletes
Alireza RAHIMI1, Vahideh Safaeinejad2
1 Rajaei Shahr, Moazen Blvd, Islamic Azad University, Karaj Campus Alborz State, Karaj, Iran
2 Physical Education and sports science (BS)
Background:Whilst some bowlers do not use shoe during exercise(in Iran) and some if them complain about their low
bake pain(L.B.P) and genitourinary.In this research try to find the answer for the relevance between L.B.P and
Varicocele through those bowlers who do not use shoe.
Aims: The purpose of this research the Epidemiology and The Cause of Varicocele and Low Back Pain (L.B.P) in Cricket
Athletes.
Methods: In this order, 150 male cricketers (56% bowlers and 44% batsmen) in Cricket working out in randomly
selected clubs for 12 to 14 months (3-5 sessions per week) voluntarily participated in this study. (Their average age,
height, and weight were 21, 177 cm, and 79 kg respectively). To diagnose Varicocele, the cricketers were examined by
physicians followed by ultrasonorography the existence low back pain was determined by Laseque, reverse Laseque
and Flexion tests by physician.
Results: The results showed 36 bowlers that did not use shoe while doing jump %67 of whom had intense Varicocele
and %33 did not. This is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Data statistical analysis with using Kendall's tau
indicated that is statistically significant differences between not use shoe with low back pain tests (p=0.05). In batsmen
players were just significant Laseque test (P=0.01).
Discussion and Conclusions: The findings suggest that Varicocele and low bake pain might be the result of ground
reaction forces during landing and overload (repetition) in bowlers who not use shoe .Suitable shoes not only protect
the feet, but also attenuate the ground reaction forces, resulting in lower forces placed on the lumbar vertebra and
pressure on the reproductive organs. Observation of technical principles notices of exercise and use protective devices
might prevent the occurrence of Varicocele, Low back pain and its side effects such as infertility and sedentary.
References:
Marcia K, Anderson. Susan J.Hall- Sport injury management.USA.2011.
Karen S,Rucker.Andrew J.Cole-Stuart M.Weinstein-Low bake pain.USA.2010.
Redli P, Staki W-A new method of transform testicular vein obtiration for varicocele using a Ballon catheter
radiology.2005-739:323.
Wade a Lillegard, Janus D.Butcher, Karen S.ruker-Hand book sport medicine.USA.1999
121
Poster presentations
PO12 | A contemporary look at the ideologies of high level cricket
coaches: Creating environments to develop batting skill
Theme: Motor Skill Aquisition & Sports Psychology
Jonathan CONNOR1,2, Damian Farrow2,3, Ian Renshaw4, Bruce Abernethy5
1 National Cricket Centre, Cricket Australia, Brisbane, Australia
2 College of Sport and Exercise Science/ ISEAL, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia
3 Australian Institute of Sport
4 Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
5 University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
Coaching cricket batting skill is often based on tradition, intuition and experience. Current training
environments promote high amounts of practice volume and repetition accrued in a practice context (the nets)
which is quite removed from the actual performance setting. However, this method has been criticised for not
being representative of the game demands, and in turn not providing appropriate feedback for optimal skill
learning to develop. Recent skill acquisition research has advocated for the use of a representative (more
game-based) environment to foster skill learning in cricket batting. The purpose of this study was to detail the
coaching ideologies of cricket batting coaches, specifically those involved with high level batters, and compare
their views relative to current skill acquisition literature. A representative sample of Australian cricket coaches
currently coaching in the Australian high performance cricket pathway completed a questionnaire examining
their coaching philosophies on developing batting skill. The questionnaire addressed their beliefs on the
importance of practice volume, repetition and representativeness of practice for established batters using a
visual analogue scale. Coaches were also asked what percentage of practice time should incorporate skill
based or game based training, as well as usage of live bowlers or bowling aids. These results are discussed
in an effort to identify gaps between contemporary research findings and current coaching philosophies. The
findings provide cricket coaches with a contemporary snapshot of the training environments used to develop
batting skill at the high performance level. The discrepancies that exist between theory and practice and the
underpinning reasons as to why this may be the case will be explored.
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Poster presentations
PO13 | Performance indicators of a winning team in domestic English
first-class twenty-twenty (t20) cricket
Theme: New Developments in Cricket Technology
James JOHNSTONE1
1 Anglia Ruskin University, UNITED KINGDOM
Aims: T20 cricket is the most popular format of the game with large financial incentives for successful players and
coaches. Performance Analysis (PA) technology has been available for a number of years and is used extensively in
other sports to gain tactical advantage. Within T20 cricket, surprisingly the information corresponding to key
performance indicators (KPIs) of winning teams is still limited to a handful of studies. Additionally, these studies are
spread over different continents where diverse environmental playing conditions may well influence the wider
applicability of KPIs identified. With T20 competitions being played across the globe, establishing and confirming KPIs
from winning teams in different countries will be of interest to coaches and players alike. Therefore, the study aims to
investigate the determinants of success for a championship winning team within English domestic T20 cricket.
Methods: A total of 10 matches from the season of an English championship winning side were analysed post-match by
TM
an experienced coder using a cricket bespoke PA computer program (Feedback Cricket ; Version 2.3). Matches took
place at 5 different locations during the T20 season (late June – August). Batting and bowling KPIs (n=57) were adopted
from previous research and were analysed across 3 phases of the T20 match (i.e. first 6 overs [power-play], middle 8
overs, last 6 overs). Additionally, a batting movement related KPI was trialled in this research. Data was analysed by
effect sizes (ES) and tests of difference.
Results: Overall KPIs reporting a significant difference (P < 0.05) and large ES >1.20 included wickets lost in match (data
presented winning vs non-winning; 3.9 vs 7.4 wickets), wickets lost in “power play” (0.9 vs 1.9 wickets), batting strike
rate from moving to leg-side in last 6 overs (207.2 vs 58.5 runs per 100 balls) percentage of runs from boundaries (61.9
vs 48.6%), players scoring 50+ runs (1.2 vs 0.3 occasions per match), partnerships of 50+ runs (1.4 vs 0.6 occasions per
match), percentage of runs from 6s (23.5 vs 14.1%) and bowlers taking 2+ wickets in the match (1.6 vs 0.7 occasions per
match).
Discussion and Conclusions: Collectively, these KPIs indicate that when batting, coaches tactics should include
developing batting partnerships which exceed 50 runs and encourage individuals go on to score 50+ runs during the
innings. Similarly to previous studies, it appears an effective batting strategy is to strike boundaries throughout an
innings without losing too many wickets, especially within the power-play period. An effective time for batters to move
around the crease may be the last 6 overs, though success in this higher risk strategy may relate to the batter being
established in the innings and the team having wickets in hand. Successful KPIs regarding bowling can be derived from
the batting KPIs but specifically teams should have a group of bowlers who are able to take 2+ wickets within an
innings. These findings will continue to inform tactical decisions by coaches during T20 matches in England. When
sufficient research has been published, cross-continent commonality in KPIs could be investigated.
123
Poster presentations
PO14 | Do elite Indian male batsmen and elite Indian male bowlers differ
in their fitness profile?
Theme: Strength & Conditioning
Harpal S BANSAL1, Evan Speechly1
1 Bsc (Hons), HPC, MCSP London; England; Bsc, Johannesburg, South Africa
Aims: The purpose of the study is to compare the effect of a standardised cricket training program on the physiological
and physical characteristics of elite cricket male bowlers with elite cricket male batsmen.
Background: One of the first studies to assess the energy expenditure in cricket was conducted by Fletcher (1955),
estimating that a cricketer had an average energy expenditure of 650Kj/h, depicting cricket as an undemanding sport.
However, this was contradicted by Noakes and Durandt (2000) who found similar performance characteristics between
Cricket players and rugby players. In addition, there have been simulation studies to replicate the demands of the game
through time-motion analysis and Global Positioning System technology to quantify the physical demands of this sport
and generate more scientifically based training programmes. However, a scientific approach to strength and
conditioning in cricketers is lacking in many cricket training programs in India.
Hence, this study will implement a scientific fitness program for Indian cricket, assessing the fitness profiles of elite
Indian male batsmen and elite Indian male bowlers. Understanding the physical demands of cricket will lead to the
development of scientifically sound training programmes of cricketers hence improving performance.
Methodology: We study a population of male cricketers contracted to the BCCI over a 6-8 week period. Testing will
consist of the McGill’s Trunk Endurance test, T-Test and Star Excursion Balance Test. Each cricketer will be tested on 6
separate occasions for 1-2 hours per-day, once a week for a six-week period. (Note: there may be changes to the fitness
tests used depending on the current training protocols for the Indian squad.)
Discussion and Conclusions: Research is still in progress and data collection and analysis will take place in the coming
months. At the conference we aim to present data in the form of descriptive statistics.
The outcomes should provide Indian coaches with an evidential basis to develop individualised training programmes
and modify prescription of training drills. This is particularly important because international cricketers are exposed to
greater demands imposed by the increasing number of matches per calendar year and thus are required to be in their
peak physical condition at all times. Therefore, an understanding of the optimum fitness profile of a player will not only
enhance cricket performance in India but prevent injuries, the two factors that determine the success of any training
intervention program.
References:
Fletcher, J. (1955) Calories and cricket. The Lancet, 265 (6875), pp1165-1166
Noakes, T. and Durandt, J. (2000) Physiological requirements of cricket. Journal of sports sciences, 18 (12), pp919-929.
124
Poster presentations
PO15 | No association between bowling performance and physiological
responses of professional fast-medium bowlers
Theme: Strength & Conditioning
James JOHNSTONE1
1 Anglia Ruskin University, UNITED KINGDOM
Aims: Monitoring in-match physiological responses and relating them to bowling performance is an attractive option
for coaches and conditioning specialists in order to further optimize performance. Advances in unobtrusive mobile
monitoring technology now permit multiple physiologically related data to be captured in-match. This area has yet to
be extensively explored within fast bowlers, the latter who have the highest in-match workload, greatest injury rates
and shortest career spans in comparison to their peers. Therefore, the study aimed to assess the association between
TM
physiological markers as captured by the Bioharness mobile monitoring system and bowling performance of fastmedium bowlers within professional cricket.
TM
Methods: Ten professional fast-medium cricket bowlers wore the Bioharness during competitive matches, over three
seasons, collecting >80 hours of data in-match from competitive cricket. Accelerometry (ACC) data (combined and
individual tri-axial counts) and Heart rate (HR) data (absolute and relative values) were organised into different match
states (bowling, between over, fielding). The latter was done using the combined tri-axial ACC data which corresponded
to bowling activity. HR data had polynomial smoothing applied. Bowling performance was measured by runs conceded
in the subsequent over.
Results: Results report non-significant relationships between runs scored in the subsequent over and combined tri-axial
(CT) activity during bowling (r = -.07, P > .05), CT activity between over episodes (r = .03, P > .05), cumulative CT activity
(bowling + between over activity) (r =.03, P > .05) and acceleration (r = -.07, P > .05). Non-significant relationships were
found for individual ACC axes relative to the runs scored in the subsequent over (r < .10, P > .05). Selected HR results
report weak relationships between runs scored in the subsequent over and age related HR max (r = .10, P > .05), HR 60
seconds after bowling (r = .09, P > .05) and HR 10 seconds before bowling (r = -.06, P > .05). No other significant
relationships were found between the absolute or relative HR data and runs scored in the subsequent over (r < .10, P >
.05).
Discussion and Conclusions: Although this study failed to identify any strong associations between successful bowling
performance and physiological markers during fast-medium bowling, it is one of the first to initiate an exploration in
this area during competitive professional matches. The lack of associations in the data could be due to the bowling
performance variable being too gross a measure, being influenced by a number of uncontrollable extraneous in-match
events which occur during competitive cricket. Future research should continue to use mobile monitoring technology to
capture in-match data but consider a combination of factors which could be used to create a more complex bowling
performance variable. Longer term, this area may provide a valuable avenue for coaches who will be able to stream live
in-match data from bowlers’, enhancing tactical decisions made in-play or developing more ecologically valid post
match conditioning sessions. In conclusion, this research indicates that fast-medium bowling performance is multifactorial with no one single marker dictating the outcome of performance.
125
Poster presentations
PO16 | The physical profile of an elite adolescent cricketer
Theme: Strength & Conditioning
Steve MCCAIG1, Craig Ranson2 ,Sam Bradley1, Anna Warren1
1 Science and Medicine Department, ECB, Loughborough, United Kingdom
2 Sports injury Research Group, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, United Kingdom
Background: Descriptive profiles are available for a variety of musculoskeletal and physiological variables in numerous
overhead sports (Cools et al, 2010, Hurd et al, 2011a, Hurd et al, 2011b, Laudner et al, 2010). Descriptive studies are
useful to provide normative data for a specific population and can be utilised; when determining dysfunction in injured
athletes, and in the design of physical preparation and injury prevention programmes. The reliability of musculoskeletal
screening tools used within cricket has previously been reported (Dacombe et al, 2011, Dennis et al, 2008); however a
detailed description of the physical profile of an elite adolescent cricketer is not currently available.
Aims: To describe the musculoskeletal and fitness profile of national level adolescent cricketers and to compare it with
age matched county academy level cricketer and football (soccer) players.
Methods: 35 members of a national development programme (mean age 17 years) and 30 first class academy
cricketers (mean age 16 years) were physically profiled as part of the 2014 pre-season training camps. In addition, 25
members of two League 1 football academies were profiled prior to the start of their 2014-15 season. Players were
profiled using a battery of field tests including anthropometrical measures, shoulder, elbow, hip and ankle range of
motion; scapula and thoracic posture, scapula dyskinesis tests, muscle strength and endurance assessments and
standardised fitness tests such as 10 and 20m speed, counter movement jump and yo-yo aerobic endurance.
Results: The results (available in October 2014) will include descriptive statistics for each group of athletes, and for the
cricket squads, by playing position (i.e. batsman, slow bowler, fast bowler and wicketkeeper). Appropriate statistical
tests will be used to compare between groups and playing position.
Discussion and Conclusions: This will be the first study to comprehensively describe the normative musculoskeletal and
fitness profile on an elite adolescent cricketer. The results will be very useful in the design of physical preparation,
rehabilitation and injury prevention programmes of elite young cricketers.
References:
Cools et al (2010) Descriptive profile of scapulothoracic position, strength and flexibility variables in adolescent elite
tennis players. BJSM
Hurd et al (2011a) A Profile of Glenohumeral Internal and External Rotation Motion in the Uninjured High School
Baseball Pitcher, Part I: Motion. JAT
Hurd et al (2011b) A Profile of Glenohumeral Internal and External Rotation Motion in the Uninjured High School
Baseball Pitcher, Part II: Strength. JAT
Laudner et al (2010) Functional hip characteristics of baseball pitchers and position players. AJSM
Dacombe et al (2011). A reliability assessment examining the inter- and intraobserver reliability of the current England
and wales cricket board musculoskeletal profiling protocol. BJSM
Dennis et al (2008).The reliability of musculoskeletal screening tests used in cricket. PTIS
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Poster presentations
PO17 | Cricket pace bowlers shoulder injuries: a systematic literature
review and suggestions for prevention
Theme: Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation & Surveillance
Sibi Boycott1, Carl PETERSEN2
1 Lund University, Lund, Sweden
2 University Of Canterbury
Aims: To systematically review the available scientific literature relevant to the prevalence, etiology and characteristics
of injuries among pace bowlers in cricket.
Methods: Three electronic databases (Medline, PubMed and Sport discuss) were searched for relevant literature from
2000-2014. Thirty six articles related to cricket injuries specific to pace bowlers were found using cross referencing. The
search included both retrospective and prospective studies of injuries among cricket pace bowlers. Data extraction and
analysis focused on the prevalence rate, injury risk, as well as type, location and etiology of injuries in pace bowlers. The
search results found injury studies on recreational, professional, junior and elite cricketers.
Results: An injury prevalence study of elite Australian cricketers found that due to injuries pace bowlers (14%) missed
more matches compared to spin bowlers (4%), batsmen (4%) and wicket keepers (2%) [1]. Furthermore cohort studies
among pace bowlers have indicated up to a 3-4 week delay between high workload and an increased risk of injury.
Unsurprisingly the single most predisposing factor for injuries in pace bowlers was increased workload [2].While data
collected on injury incidence among New Zealand cricketers highlighted ~80% of injuries took place during matches
with ~49% of all injuries sustained during bowling [3]. Injury surveillance from the 2011 International Cricket Council
(ICC) Cricket World Cup revealed that there were 97 non-time loss and 23 time loss injuries. Interestingly, a comparison
of time loss incidence by position, revealed bowlers' experienced 3.3 injuries per 100 bowling days whereas batting was
associated with 2.2 injuries per 2.2 per 10,000 balls faced [4].
Discussion and conclusions: This review provided a summary on the incidence, frequency and characteristics of injuries
in cricket pace bowlers. While by position, pace bowlers are more prone to injuries due to overload; the limited number
of shoulder injury studies indicates a clear need for further studies specifically in relation to current rehabilitation
practices and time-frames. These studies could potentially investigate pace bowler shoulder efficiency, scapula humeral
rhythm and scapular dyskinesis which may lead to the formulation of better strengthening programmes for pace
bowlers. In turn this is likely to improve injury resilience and help to ensure balance, strength and posture. Research
should also investigate the influence of the increased prevalence of Twenty/20 tournaments within the global cricket
calendar and whether these are potentially encouraging players to return to the game post-injury sooner. Injury
incidence data may also be used to predict the critical number of pace bowlers required for one day international
squads to avoid overload of the bowling group. Potential rule changes should also be modeled (allowing 12th man
substitutions) to demonstrate their potential effectiveness in alleviating volume overload among the cricket pace
bowlers.
References:
Orchard J, James T, Alcott E, Carter S, Farhart P. (2002) Injuries in Australian cricket at first class level 1995/1996 to
2000/2001. Br J Sports Med. 2002 Aug; 36 (4):270–275.
Orchard, J,James, T, Portus, M, Kountouris, A, & Dennis, R. (2009). Fast bowlers in cricket demonstrate up to 3- to 4week delay between high workloads and increased risk of injury. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 37(6), 11861192.
Frost W & Chalmers D (2012) Injury in elite New Zealand cricketers 2002-2008: descriptive epidemiology. British Journal
of Sports Medicine, doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2012-091337.
Ranson C, Hurley R, Rugless L, Mansingh A, & Cole J (2011) International cricket injury surveillance: a report of five
teams competing in the ICC Cricket World Cup 2011. Br J Sports Med 47(10): 637–43.
127
Poster presentations
PO18 | Spinal shrinkage and lateral flexion during eight overs of fast
bowling
Timothy BARRY1, Shaun Jackson1
1 University of Cumbria, Lancaster, United Kingdom
Aims: Epidemiological research in cricket has shown that fast bowlers are at greatest risk of injury with the lower back
being the most common site of injury. Ranson et al (2008) have suggested contralateral side flexion during front foot
impact (FFI) in fast bowling places a significant load on the spine and may play an important role in the aetiology of
stress injuries to the lumbar vertebrae. Changes in spinal length reflect the creep behaviour of intervertebral discs
when loaded. Shrinkage in stature has been used as an index of spinal loading in both occupational and sporting
contexts however spinal shrinkage as a measure has not been implicated in the aetiology of injuries to fast bowlers.
The aim of this research was to investigate rates of spinal shrinkage during eight overs of fast bowling and whether
stature alterations are associated with the contralateral side flexion at FFI.
Method: Eight male right arm fast bowlers (aged 20.5 ± 1.07 years, height 1.8 ±0.03m and mass 72.8 ±6.4kg) from
premier league club cricket in the north west of England had their stature measured before and every two overs during
an eight over spell of bowling using a stadiometer (modified design of the apparatus used by Eklund and Corlett 1987)
th
nd
th
th
th
accurate to 0.01mm. The 5 ball of the 2 , 4 , 6 and 8 over was recorded with a Panasonic HX-WA30EB-A Full HD
(Matsushita Electric Industrial Co Ltd, Osaka, Japan) and contralateral flexion angle was calculated by the difference
between a perpendicular line to the ground through a marker on L4 and a line through markers located on L4 and C7
from a posterior view at ball release on FFI. Subsequent digitizing was conducted using open source video analysis
software (Kinovea, France). Repeated measures ANOVA and Pearson’s Correlation Coefficients were used to analyse
the data. The significance level was accepted at p<0.05.
Results: Eight overs of bowling caused a significant overall shrinkage of 4.69 ± 2.42mm (p<0.05) however shrinkage did
th
th
th
not significantly change after 2 overs compared to 4 , 6 and 8 overs. Contralateral flexion at ball release did not
significantly change throughout the 8 overs of bowling (F (3, 5) = .30, p > 0.05). While there was one significant
correlation (r= -.786, p= >0.05) between contralateral flexion and spinal shrinkage at 6 overs, no significant correlation
was found at overs 2, 4 or 8.
Discussion and Conclusions: Eight overs of fast bowling places a noteworthy spinal load on the bowlers accounting for
~25% of maximal diurnal shrinkage of ~20mm (Eklund & Corlett 1987). Overall shrinkage is similar to previous research
(Reilly and Chana 1994; Barry 2007) but this is the first to demonstrate a plateau in shrinkage after 2 overs of bowling.
There appears to be no relationship between shrinkage and contralateral flexion at FFI as three out of the four
measurements during 8 overs of bowling were not significantly correlated. Future research should consider the role of
spinal shrinkage and the resultant stiffening of the motion segment in the aetiology of back injury in fast bowlers.
References:
Barry, T. (2007) Spinal shrinkage during eight overs of fast bowling in bowlers with different actions. 3rd World
Congress of Science and Medicine in Cricket. Barbados Hilton, Barbados 4-7 April.
Eklund, J.A.E. and Corlett, E.N. (1987) Shrinkage as a measure of load on the spine. Spine, 9, 189-194.
Ranson C,A., Burnett A,F., King M., Patel N. and O’Sullivan P,B. (2008) The relationship between bowling action
classification and three-dimensional lower trunk motion in fast bowlers in cricket. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26(3), 267278.
Reilly, T. and Chana, D. (1994) Spinal Shrinkage in Fast Bowling. Ergonomics, 37(1), 127-132.
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Poster presentations
PO19 | Spine morphology in sagittal and frontal planes in fast bowlers pre
and post 8 overs of fast bowling using a novel skin surface measuring
device
Timothy BARRY1, Benjamin Traves1
1 University of Cumbria, Lancaster, United Kingdom
Aims: The high incidence of stress injuries to the lower back in fast bowlers has been associated with hyperextension,
contralateral flexion and rotation while forces up to six times the body mass must be absorbed. Several studies have
used reliable skin surface measurement devices (Barrett et al 2013) to analyse the influence on spinal curvature of
sports where flexion and extension movements are common (Muyor et al 2013; Lopez-Minarro et al 2012) but none
have considered cricket. Lumbar lordosis has been implicated as a risk factor in the aetiology of spondylolysis (Been &
Kalichman 2014). Therefore this research aims to investigate the morphology of fast bowlers’ spines and the effect of 8
overs of fast bowling on sagittal curvatures and lateral flexion in the frontal plane.
Method: Eight male right arm fast bowlers (aged 20.5 ± 1.07 years, height 1.8 ±0.03m and mass 72.8 ±6.4kg) from
premier league club cricket in the north west of England had their spinal curvatures measured before and after eight
overs of fast bowling in an upright position, full flexion and full extension. Thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis and pelvic
tilt were measured in the sagittal plane using a non-invasive skin surface computer assisted wireless telemetry device
(Spinal Mouse, Idiag, Volkerswill, Switzerland). Frontal measurements of right and left lateral bending and upright
posture (inclination) were recorded along with inclination in the sagittal plane. Paired sample t tests were used to
analyse the data. A significance level was accepted at p<0.05.
Results: Mean sagittal values pre bowling in upright standing posture were 46° ±11° (thoracic kyphosis), -26.5° ±9°
(lumbar lordosis), 14.5° ±6° (pelvic tilt) and 4° (inclination). 75% of bowlers were classified with thoracic hyperkyphosis
before bowling with 25% classified as neutral. Post bowling 50% were still classified as hyperkyphotic and 50% neutral.
Hypolordosis in the lumbar spine was found in 25% of bowlers with 75% in the neutral position with no changes after
bowling. No significant differences were found between thoracic kyphosis in upright, flexion and extension (p>0.05)
after eight overs of bowling. Lumbar lordosis was not significantly different in the three measurement positions post
bowling (p>0.05). Lateral flexion to the left was significantly lower (39° ±7°) compared to the right (42° ±6°) before and
after 8 overs of bowling (p<0.05). There were no significant difference between pre and post bowling and direction of
flexion (p>0.05).
Discussion and Conclusions: Interestingly the fast bowlers displayed asymmetric frontal flexion with a lower range of
motion on the contralateral side before and after fast bowling. In conjunction with this asymmetry, 25% of the current
sample demonstrated hypolordosis. Although no acute changes in spinal morphology were found after 8 overs of fast
bowling further investigation of the chronic effect of long term exposure to bowling on spinal morphology is warranted.
Measuring spinal curvature should be included in the screening of cricketers to investigate possible links to the
aetiology of lumbar injuries in fast bowlers.
References:
Barrett E, McCreesh K, and Lewis J (2014) Reliability and validity of non-radiographic methods of thoracic kyphosis
measurement: a systematic review. Manual Therapy, 19(1), 10-7.
Been, E. and Kalichman, L. (2014). Lumbar lordosis. The Spine Journal, 14(1), 87-97
Muyor J,M., Snachez-Sanchez E., Sanz-Rivas D. and Lopez-Minarro P,A. (2013) Sagittal spinal morphology in highly
trained adolescent tennis players. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 12, 588-593
Lopez-Minarro P,A., Muyor J,M and Alacid F. (2012) Influence of hamstring extensibility on sagittal spinal curvatures
and pelvic tilt in highly trained young kayakers. European Journal of Sport Sciences, 12(6), 469-474
129
WCSMC 2015 Congress Secretariat
ICMS Australasia Pty Ltd
GPO Box 3270
Sydney NSW 2001

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